# 7.1 Explicit and implicit costs, and accounting and economic profit

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Explain the difference between explicit costs and implicit costs
• Understand the relationship between cost and revenue

Private enterprise , the ownership of businesses by private individuals, is a hallmark of the U.S. economy. When people think of businesses, often giants like Wal-Mart, Microsoft, or General Motors come to mind. But firms come in all sizes, as shown in [link] . The vast majority of American firms have fewer than 20 employees. As of 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau counted 5.7 million firms with employees in the U.S. economy. Slightly less than half of all the workers in private firms are at the 17,000 large firms, meaning they employ more than 500 workers. Another 35% of workers in the U.S. economy are at firms with fewer than 100 workers. These small-scale businesses include everything from dentists and lawyers to businesses that mow lawns or clean houses. Indeed, [link] does not include a separate category for the millions of small “non-employer” businesses where a single owner or a few partners are not officially paid wages or a salary, but simply receive whatever they can earn.

Range in size of u.s. firms
Number of Employees Firms (% of total firms) Number of Paid Employees (% of total employment)
Total 5,734,538 112.0 million
0–9 4,543,315 (79.2%) 12.3 million (11.0%)
10–19 617,089 (10.8%) 8.3 million (7.4%)
20–99 475,125 (8.3%) 18.6 million (16.6%)
100–499 81,773 (1.4%) 15.9 million (14.2%)
500 or more 17,236 (0.30%) 50.9 million (49.8%)

Each of these businesses, regardless of size or complexity, tries to earn a profit:

Total revenue    is the income brought into the firm from selling its products. It is calculated by multiplying the price of the product times the quantity of output sold:

We will see in the following chapters that revenue is a function of the demand for the firm’s products.

We can distinguish between two types of cost: explicit and implicit. Explicit costs are out-of-pocket costs, that is, payments that are actually made. Wages that a firm pays its employees or rent that a firm pays for its office are explicit costs. Implicit costs are more subtle, but just as important. They represent the opportunity cost of using resources already owned by the firm. Often for small businesses, they are resources contributed by the owners; for example, working in the business while not getting a formal salary, or using the ground floor of a home as a retail store. Implicit costs also allow for depreciation of goods, materials, and equipment that are necessary for a company to operate. (See the Work it Out feature for an extended example.)

These two definitions of cost are important for distinguishing between two conceptions of profit, accounting profit and economic profit. Accounting profit is a cash concept. It means total revenue minus explicit costs—the difference between dollars brought in and dollars paid out. Economic profit is total revenue minus total cost, including both explicit and implicit costs. The difference is important because even though a business pays income taxes based on its accounting profit, whether or not it is economically successful depends on its economic profit.

## Calculating implicit costs

Consider the following example. Fred currently works for a corporate law firm. He is considering opening his own legal practice, where he expects to earn $200,000 per year once he gets established. To run his own firm, he would need an office and a law clerk. He has found the perfect office, which rents for$50,000 per year. A law clerk could be hired for $35,000 per year. If these figures are accurate, would Fred’s legal practice be profitable? Step 1. First you have to calculate the costs. You can take what you know about explicit costs and total them: Step 2. Subtracting the explicit costs from the revenue gives you the accounting profit. But these calculations consider only the explicit costs. To open his own practice, Fred would have to quit his current job, where he is earning an annual salary of$125,000. This would be an implicit cost of opening his own firm.

Step 3. You need to subtract both the explicit and implicit costs to determine the true economic profit:

Fred would be losing $10,000 per year. That does not mean he would not want to open his own business, but it does mean he would be earning$10,000 less than if he worked for the corporate firm.

Implicit costs can include other things as well. Maybe Fred values his leisure time, and starting his own firm would require him to put in more hours than at the corporate firm. In this case, the lost leisure would also be an implicit cost that would subtract from economic profits.

Now that we have an idea about the different types of costs, let’s look at cost structures. A firm’s cost structure in the long run may be different from that in the short run. We turn to that distinction in the next section.

## Key concepts and summary

Privately owned firms are motivated to earn profits. Profit is the difference between revenues and costs. While accounting profit considers only explicit costs, economic profit considers both explicit and implicit costs.

## Problems

A firm is considering an investment that will earn a 6% rate of return. If it were to borrow the money, it would have to pay 8% interest on the loan, but it currently has the cash, so it will not need to borrow. Should the firm make the investment? Show your work.

## References

2010 U.S. Census. www.census.gov.

#### Questions & Answers

what is the condition of a consumer behaviour in the equilibrium under the theory of consumer behaviour
Sahr Reply
what is equilibrium
Sahr
A point where quantity demand & supply meets called equilibrium
Hasham
a state is said to be equilibrium when there is no tendency of movement.
Nibedita
Pls @Nibedita am confused
Prince
The state of balance achieved by an end user of products that refers to the amount of goods and services they can purchase given their present level of income and the current level of prices. Consumer equilibrium allows a consumer to obtain the most satisfaction possible from their income.
Okwori
where is the calculations?
Nathan Reply
what are the two conditions for aconsumer to be in the equilibrium under the theory of consumer behaviour in
Sahr
Economic equilibrium is a condition or state in which economic forces are balanced. In effect, economic variables remain unchanged from their equilibrium values in the absence of external influences. Economic equilibrium may also be defined as the point at which supply equals demand for a product,
vinay
Hello there, let's make a time to chat about econimics and its issues.
DA Reply
it's true
Adamsvictor
hie Sir /Madam l need help when it comes to Economics lm doing it for the first time
Thembelani
So, share your problems that you have in terms of economis and we will discuss on it.
DA
Basic Economic problems
Thembelani
what is the Basic Economic problem
Thembelani
what is the Basic Economic problem
Thembelani Reply
scarcity
Rhaiymornd
a bit of explanation please its my first year doing Economics
Thembelani
rare, limited. economic agents eg You dube, the govt & the business entities wants to maximise their utility/satisfaction but because limited resource or scarcity of such resources they are unable to satisfy their needs.
ian
thank u Sir , l understand what you are saying now
Thembelani
limited resources; you wanna take the most benefits from the minimum resource.
DA
if u ar a fresher, eco has to 2 fundamental parts "micro & macro". micro(small) this is were the economc agents ar discussd, economc systms, dmand & supply, typs of market systms etc and the macro (big) part the elucidates the functns of central bank, typs of employmnt, functns of money & int trade.
ian
there is an old adage that says "a picture is worth a thousand words" economics is full of graphing so it requires on the side of the student to master the art of keeping information in form graphs.
ian
oky Sir
Thembelani
scarcity becomes the fundamental problem of economics because of limited resources, when we take an individual, he or she has many wants, thus unlimited wants but can never satisfy all but only few.
Rhaiymornd
now when we take a firm, a firm maybe willing to produce two or more product into the market but due to limited resources they only produce one. the same way if we take the government, he or she maybe willing to bring development either through infrastructures,
Rhaiymornd
that is when consumer decision making rule comes in
Olusegun
choice arises as a result of scarcity of resources
Olusegun
so if we look through, the individual, firm and government, their wants are unlimited but due limited resources, all of their wants cannot be satisfy. therefore scarcity can be term as limited in supply of resources. scarcity is not lack of resources but insufficient resources
Rhaiymornd
there is a marriage with the following; scarcity, factors of production, opportunity cost curve (occ) or (ppc, ppf, tc) production possibility curve productn possibility frontier transformation curve. The OCC, PPC, PPF & TC explains the decisions made by householders, firms & the govt.
ian
opportunity cost also arises as a result of firm willing to produce a particular commodity but resources use in satisfying or producing such output is limited
Olusegun
wat ar those decisions? the most important is WHY nations economise tht is if they hav abundancy of factors of productn eg land, labour & entreprise? now since all of us have unlimited needs against few resourcs PPC, PPF, TC, OCC walks in to make wise allocatn of resources.
ian
how do those decisions made? eg by economic agents; a. Household (You) - if u have R10 & wish to buy a book & a pen & realise that both commodities seĺl at the same price which of the two (2) can u buy (necesity) and which one can u forgo (not all tht important).
ian
b. firms - they allocat mo resourcs to all thoz commoditz tht they think will yield mo profit. c. Govt - if the govt SA was to come in yo area which 1 would u think they can consider first tht can benefit the majority & the minority. So instead of building football stadium they construct a hospital.
ian
if the SA govt had enough resources they would have built both the stadium and the hospital but because of scarce in terms of resources they had to forgo the construction the stadium to build a hospital which is necessary for the majority to benefit.
ian
Opportunity cost well broken down..
Andres
opportunity cost means the lose of other alternatives when the alternative is chosen
saad Reply
is the benefits that you loose by not selecting a certain alternative.
EDWINY
individual wants maybe unlimited, but means to satisfy them are limited there one has to forgo some alternative in order to acquire other alternative and it must according priority, that is when scale of preference set in for individuals to make choice
Rhaiymornd
hello everyone
Aliyu
Next best alternative forgiven
Shoaib
demand is the amount of goods and services that consumer is willing and able to purchase at a particular prices over given period of time
Rhaiymornd Reply
yep
Abraham
what's demand?
labi Reply
What customers want the most...
Abraham
not only what customers wants, want is just mere desire but demand is backed by purchasing power, ability and willingness
Rhaiymornd
thanks
Abraham
What's opportunity cost?
Abraham
what are the differences between demand and supply
Zakariyah Reply
who is called lender of the last resort
Divyanshu Reply
Hi
Linda
hlw
Karishma
Central bank
Majeed
hy
Karishma
Hello
Majeed
hy
Karishma
How are you
Majeed
Am gud
Linda
fine
Karishma
Am gud
Linda
hello
Chandra
Well! what's going on
Majeed
r u study in economics
Karishma
anybody there?
Chandra
r u study in economics
Karishma
the central bank
Sessay
Has completed already
Majeed
hey
neha
yes
Abigail
Yesss
Majeed
ok
Karishma
hey
Doctor
yh
Abigail
more questions
Sessay
how ar you
Doctor
split the price effect into income effect and substitution effect
Karishma
fine and u
Abigail
Hi
Godwin
hi
Hey, I am new here. Hope, discussion on Economics will clear our concepts more.
yasir
yes
Abigail
do u speak hindi or english
Karishma
how to consumer equlibrium through ic
Karishma
consumer equilibrium demand equals supply
Kenneth
the consumer is in equilibrium when the indifference curve is tangential to the budget line. or when the BL and IC intersect
Sessay
reasons indifference curve slopes downwards?
Kenneth
fine Abby any good,
Doctor
ur lost
Doctor
hey. im new year. economics teacher how we can discuss some thing interesting.
EDWINY
which one
Doctor
what do u understand the concept of poverty cycle.
EDWINY
hey
Ebong
I'm New here
Ebong
hi
ian
just new here guy's and also an Economics fresher of Kogi State University Anyigba
nelson
wxup
Ayegba
who can tell the laboratory of economic?
Amara
, Dennis Weissman Associates, LLC Laboratory Economics is the monthly business newsletter that gets behind the headlines and press releases.
Ayegba
sooo teah me what an LLC
Emmanuel
what's the topic
Adamsvictor Reply
economic systems
gracious
hello
Antonio
market
aba
hello where can I find the diagrams
Manu
Hello I am totally out ,I am not understanding why we are here. can someone help me out?
Amara
why Economic is not a pure science can someone help me out
Mohamed
because economics like science put forth a some hypotheses and then do experiments to prove them
Anwesh
but these experiments are not completely controlled
Anwesh
Hello
Comfort
hey
suraj
hi people can you help me out on "demand and supply"
Milton
Am not understanding can someone enlighten me pls
Bertilla
hi people can you help me out on "demand and supply"
Sessay
hello. if Mr.Patrick's income is #900.00 while that of Mr.Shodawe is #1300.00 if Mr.Patrick and Shodowe pay #90.00 and #130.00 as taxes,the tax system is?
Benjamin
I need the answer please
Benjamin
regressive tax system
shaikh
OK thanks
Benjamin
Isn't this called proportional tax rate because the rate stays the same - 10%? Tell me if I'm wrong
Ioan
Supply is perfectly elastic and demand increases.
kishore Reply
whose there
Waseem
show the demand curve
Hameed Reply
it slopes downward from left to right
Ama
how resources are allocated in a free economy
Charlotte Reply
explain how discriminating Monopoly increase profits
Charlotte
factors responsible for the emergence of monopoly situation
adelakun Reply
total output produced by a country over a given period of time .... can someone give me the term plz
TMM Reply
GDP
Anjorin
thaks man
TMM
Woman. 👍👍
Anjorin
gross domestic products
janet
GDP
Bertilla
GDP
Prof
GDP
Bertilla
gross domestic product
gross domestic product
GDp
Mohamed
gdp
agboola
what is recession pertaining to GDP
Prince
what is recession pertaining to GDP
Prince
what is recession
Prince
law of demand and supply
Zakariyah
All thing been equal
Temple
no i think recession is pertaining to GNP
owolabi
gross national production
Abraham
what is embago
Peter
all things being equal
Raphael
embargo restriction on trade by government of a country
owolabi
an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country.
Ayegba
Embargo.....an order by a common carrier or publ regulatory agency prohibiting or restric freight transportation
Ayegba
it's a complete band on important n export
Bertilla
who is Really Good in Mathematics. put me Through. Let Do Group Reading; am Preparing to Write Jamb this Year.
Andrew
Hi. C+I+G+x-m
Shoaib
Gdp aggregate demand are bit same
Shoaib
Dpd = c+i+g+(x-m) is aggregate demand
Shoaib
Gdp=c+i+g+(x-m) is aggregate demand
Shoaib
GDP= c+i+s+g+(x-m)
Saboor
Topic ended waiting for next topic
Shoaib
What is Terms of Trade (TOT)?
DADA
At what point a Terms of Trade can be favorable?
DADA
Define Expansion path
Girma
The difference between cyclical unemployment and structural unemployment
Prince Reply
Cyclical unemployment .it has to do with an increase in the quantity of good demanded or there is over production which result in fall in prices. Industries will be affected it will now causes retrenchment of workers in the industries while structural unemployment arises as a result of slight change
Adeoti
In the industrial structure of a countries workers wil now be retren
Adeoti
Will now be retrenched as a result of economic recession... That is the little i knw....
Adeoti

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