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The steps of specialized transduction. Step 1 is viral attachment and penetration. This is when the phage infects a cell. This shows the virus sitting on the outside of a cell and injecting DNA into the cell. Step 2 is integration when the phage DNA becomes incorporated into the host genome. Step 3 is excisionwhen the phage is excised from the bacterial chromosomes along with a short piece of bacterial DNA. The DNA is then packaged into newly formed capsids. When the virus particles are assembled the DNA contains both viral and host segments. Step 4 is infection when the phage contains both viral and bacterial DNA infects a new host cell. Step 5 is recombination when the phage DNA along with the attached bacterial DNA are incorporated into a new cell. The image shows a new bacterial cell with virus DNA as well as other bacterial DNA in its genome.
This flowchart illustrates the mechanism of specialized transduction. An integrated phage excises, bringing with it a piece of the DNA adjacent to its insertion point. On reinfection of a new bacterium, the phage DNA integrates along with the genetic material acquired from the previous host.
  • Which phage life cycle is associated with which forms of transduction?

Life cycle of viruses with animal hosts

Lytic animal viruses follow similar infection stages to bacteriophages: attachment, penetration, biosynthesis, maturation, and release (see [link] ). However, the mechanisms of penetration, nucleic-acid biosynthesis, and release differ between bacterial and animal viruses. After binding to host receptors, animal viruses enter through endocytosis (engulfment by the host cell) or through membrane fusion (viral envelope with the host cell membrane). Many viruses are host specific, meaning they only infect a certain type of host; and most viruses only infect certain types of cells within tissues. This specificity is called a tissue tropism . Examples of this are demonstrated by the poliovirus , which exhibits tropism for the tissues of the brain and spinal cord, or the influenza virus , which has a primary tropism for the respiratory tract.

Steps of influenza infection. Step 1 is attachment when the influenza virus becomes attached to a target epithelial cell. This image shows a spherical virus binding to the surface of a host cell. Step 2 is penetration when the cell engulfs the virus by endocytosis; this shows the virus within a vacuole. Step 3 is uncoating when the viral contents are released; the image shows the virus being released from the vacuole. Step 4 is biosynthesis when the viral RNA enters the nucleus where it is replicated by RNA polymerase. Step 5 is assembly when the new phage particles are assembled. Step 6 is release when new viral particles are made and released into the extracellular fluid. The cell, which is not killed in the process continues to make new viruses.
In influenza virus infection, viral glycoproteins attach the virus to a host epithelial cell. As a result, the virus is engulfed. Viral RNA and viral proteins are made and assembled into new virions that are released by budding.

Animal viruses do not always express their genes using the normal flow of genetic information—from DNA to RNA to protein. Some viruses have a dsDNA genome like cellular organisms and can follow the normal flow. However, others may have ssDNA , dsRNA , or ssRNA genomes. The nature of the genome determines how the genome is replicated and expressed as viral proteins. If a genome is ssDNA, host enzymes will be used to synthesize a second strand that is complementary to the genome strand, thus producing dsDNA. The dsDNA can now be replicated, transcribed, and translated similar to host DNA.

If the viral genome is RNA, a different mechanism must be used. There are three types of RNA genome: dsRNA, positive (+) single-strand (+ssRNA) or negative (−) single-strand RNA (−ssRNA) . If a virus has a +ssRNA genome, it can be translated directly to make viral proteins. Viral genomic +ssRNA acts like cellular mRNA. However, if a virus contains a −ssRNA genome, the host ribosomes cannot translate it until the −ssRNA is replicated into +ssRNA by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) (see [link] ). The RdRP is brought in by the virus and can be used to make +ssRNA from the original −ssRNA genome. The RdRP is also an important enzyme for the replication of dsRNA viruses, because it uses the negative strand of the double-stranded genome as a template to create +ssRNA. The newly synthesized +ssRNA copies can then be translated by cellular ribosomes.

Viruses with −ssRNA (negative single-stranded RNA) use RdRP (viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) to make +ssRNA (positive single stranded RNA). RdRP can also be used to covert +ssRNA to −ssRNA. +ssRNA uses host ribosomes to make viral proteins.
RNA viruses can contain +ssRNA that can be directly read by the ribosomes to synthesize viral proteins. Viruses containing −ssRNA must first use the −ssRNA as a template for the synthesis of +ssRNA before viral proteins can be synthesized.

Questions & Answers

what is biochemistry
Isaac Reply
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. ... The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as meta
Dejene
what is cell
Becky
The cell ( latin word cella meaning "small room") is the basic structural ,functional and biological unit of all known organisms. A cell is a smallest unit of life. cell are often called the building block of life
secret
what is pathogenic
kelvin Reply
biological pathogen is anything that can produce disease. a pathogen may also be referred to as an infectious agent, or simple a germ.
Dejene
Thanks
kelvin
explain 3 points why gender is relevant to health.
kelvin
wat causes sor throat
Ezeama Reply
Streptococcus
Rajat
Streptococcus
Panda
Gram positive
shamim
streptococcus pyrogenes
Sherma
group A streptococcus pyogenes. But not the only one.
Carlos
does the bac of s.aures gives choronic diseas in bone?
Elyas
causes virus bac group A strep allergies smoking
Elyas
truth also virus
Shania
what z microbiology
Mwelwa Reply
microbiology is all about the scientific study of microorganisms, their life changes, their life span, structural punctuality and their phenomenon.
Ridwan
thanks
micah
Best scope in microbiology
Rahul
wat abut skin
Elyas
whatis scope
Amare
what is scope
Funmi
what happened when someone died and what happened to the blood
Franca Reply
nice question
Attari
when you die you have no memory and the blood dry off
Falere
what microorganisms is all about?
Ridwan
And how many does the microorganisms is classified?
Ridwan
How are microbs organized
Saskia
what is endoparasites and exo parasite and their example
OGEDE Reply
Endo : inside the body Exo/ecto : outside or on the body
Paul
examples please
OGEDE
Louse for exo/ecto Helminths (worms) for endo
Paul
what's prokaryotic
mohaiminul Reply
A prokaryotic cell is a cell with no membrane bounds organelles
Paul
what are the main effect of parasite?
yunusa Reply
nutritional group of micro organism
Mana Reply
what are the charateristic bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses have in commom
Ami Reply
what type of bacteria ismor serious
Amare
D N A ar purno rup ki
Ruba Reply
বাংলায় দেখবো DNA এর পূর্রন্যরুপ কি
Ruba
what's microbiology
micah
micro biology is the study of micro organisms,those being unicellular multicellular or a cellular
aniisha
deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code.
aniisha
Does the parasite/parasitology are under microbiology or not
yunusa
Define bacteria
Kainat
Bacteria are a type of biological cell & they constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
raisa
what kind of microbiology
Mira
hello what is main function of T and B cells
Ishaq Reply
T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity while B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies)
Janet
what is hepatitis B
Sunday
it's viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases. the virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids...
Dejene
What are fundamental experiment of microbiology?
Lucky Reply
study of microscopic organisms, unicellular and multicellular
Falere
what are the characteristics of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes
Ami
bacteria-are living organism. contain a peptidoglycan/lipopolysaccharide cell wall. VIRUS-are considered as organic structure which interact with living organism don't have acell wall. they have many differents like bacteria size -large(1000nm) virus size-smaller(20-400nm). bacteria ribosomes presen
Dejene
virus ribosomes absence. bacteria living organism. virus b/n living and non-living things
Dejene
eukaryotic cell has a true membrane bond nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmenalization of function
Dejene
This answer is wrong
Jeffrey Reply
who discovered the growth curve
Joy Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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