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Ribosomes

Ribosomes found in eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts have 70S ribosomes—the same size as prokaryotic ribosomes. However, nonorganelle-associated ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are 80S ribosomes , composed of a 40S small subunit and a 60S large subunit. In terms of size and composition, this makes them distinct from the ribosomes of prokaryotic cells.

The two types of nonorganelle-associated eukaryotic ribosomes are defined by their location in the cell: free ribosomes and membrane-bound ribosomes . Free ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm and serve to synthesize water-soluble proteins; membrane-bound ribosomes are found attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and make proteins for insertion into the cell membrane or proteins destined for export from the cell.

The differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes are clinically relevant because certain antibiotic drugs are designed to target one or the other. For example, cycloheximide targets eukaryotic action, whereas chloramphenicol targets prokaryotic ribosomes. A.E. Barnhill, M.T. Brewer, S.A. Carlson. “Adverse Effects of Antimicrobials via Predictable or Idiosyncratic Inhibition of Host Mitochondrial Components.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56 no. 8 (2012):4046–4051. Since human cells are eukaryotic, they generally are not harmed by antibiotics that destroy the prokaryotic ribosomes in bacteria. However, sometimes negative side effects may occur because mitochondria in human cells contain prokaryotic ribosomes.

Endomembrane system

The endomembrane system , unique to eukaryotic cells, is a series of membranous tubules, sacs, and flattened disks that synthesize many cell components and move materials around within the cell ( [link] ). Because of their larger cell size, eukaryotic cells require this system to transport materials that cannot be dispersed by diffusion alone. The endomembrane system comprises several organelles and connections between them, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles.

A diagram showing the nucleus. A sphere in the center of the nucleus is labeled nucleolus. Lines within the nucleus are labeled chromatin. The fluid of the nucleus is labeled nucleoplasm. The outer region just inside the nuclear envelope is labeled nuclear lamina. The outside of the nucleus is labeled nuclear envelop and pores in the envelope are labeled nuclear pores.  The nuclear envelope is continuous with and becomes the endoplasmic reticulum; a webbing of membranes outside the nucleus. Regions of the endoplasmic reticulum with dots are labeled rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and regions without dots are labeled smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The RER and SER are continuous with each other.
The endomembrane system is composed of a series of membranous intracellular structures that facilitate movement of materials throughout the cell and to the cell membrane.

Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected array of tubules and cisternae (flattened sacs) with a single lipid bilayer ( [link] ). The spaces inside of the cisternae are called lumen of the ER. There are two types of ER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) . These two different types of ER are sites for the synthesis of distinctly different types of molecules. RER is studded with ribosomes bound on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. These ribosomes make proteins destined for the plasma membrane ( [link] ). Following synthesis, these proteins are inserted into the membrane of the RER. Small sacs of the RER containing these newly synthesized proteins then bud off as transport vesicles and move either to the Golgi apparatus for further processing, directly to the plasma membrane, to the membrane of another organelle, or out of the cell. Transport vesicles are single-lipid, bilayer, membranous spheres with hollow interiors that carry molecules. SER does not have ribosomes and, therefore, appears “smooth.” It is involved in biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of toxic compounds within the cell.

Questions & Answers

give me the name of good microbiology books to download
Shahid Reply
thank u
Shahid
bacteriology encyclopedia
Mzafar
Who invented microbes?
manor Reply
Which year did Robert koch invented the microbes?
manor
Robert Koch
Matilda
Antony Van Leeuwenhoek invented microbes through a designed single lensed microscope.
Mohamed
what is microbiology
Nyoik Reply
microbiology is the study of micro organisms. this can be multicellular,unicellular & acellular
Janet
what is the difference between DNA/RNA
kanaaLka
DNA is a double stranded molecule while RNA is a single stranded molecule
Lovely
who is the inventor of microscope
Alberta
What are antibodies?
Happy Reply
they are immune cells that are released by immune system to fight strangers like microbes
Ahmed
a blood protien produce in response to an counteracting a specific antigen
Pooja
Why salmonella typhi is harmful protozoan?
Saily Reply
because make typhoid that is considered as a food born illness
Ahmed
Name any five modes of transmission.
Happy
what are the scientific names and common names of some microbes
Rich Reply
Staphylococcus aureus - staph Streptococcus pyogenes - strep Botulism - Clostridium botulinum Rocky Mountain spotted fever - Rickettsia rickettsii Diphtheria - Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gonorrhea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Tammy
what are the limitations of the Koch's postulate
Naa
how a microorganism growth.
Zubair Reply
Is foetus a parasite to his or her mother? if yes and if no ho
Mashauri Reply
y
Yusri
yes
Yashkin
yes
Zubair
yes it a parasite to the mother because it feeds on the mother for survival
Beatrice
yes
Redwan
no
Elasha
definition of a parasite: an organism that lives in or on an organism of ANOTHER species (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense
Elasha
no because an organism can inky be a parasite if it causes harm to its HOST. And the fetus does not cause harm to its mother under normal conditions
aliyu
yes
Naa
what is biosensor in microbiology
Raja Reply
What are biosensor
Raja
what's are biosensor
Raja
what is microbiology defination
Rinku Reply
microbiology is the study of small or manuit organisms which cannot be seen with our nacked eyes unless with the aid of the microscope
Brandina
is the study of living organisms which are not directly visible to a direct eye but can only be seen under a microscope
Ipa
ok
Ipa
microbiology is the study of living organisms of microscopic size it is also the study of micro organisms with their form structure reproduction psychology metabolism and classification
Priyanka
ok
Aminu
Microbiology are the study of microorganisms either microscopic or sub microscopic creaters mainly unicellulars, multicellulars and subcellulars. Such as protozoa,bacteria and viruses.
Rana
it is the biological study of viruses, fungi, protozoa, bacteria which in collective name are called micro organisms, unlike microscopic organisms being invisible, that requires a magnifications with the help of a microscope.
Mohamed
what are the importances of Microbiology?
Erick Reply
don't know
SINGLE
we obtained the insulin from the bacteria. and some microorganisms are decomposer in ecosystems.
Zubair
nitrogen in the air is fixed into the soil by microbes example is nitrobactor
Matilda
yes
Zubair
how a weak immune region where microorganisms attack easily?
Zubair Reply
with examples differentiate gram positive from gram negative bacteria
Mary Reply
Differentiate gram positive from gram negative
Mary
I have no idea
Zubair
hello
Kuonain
and example of gram negative is E. coli
Pooja
gram positive stain purple when subjected to gram stain whilst gram positive bacterial has thick wall composed of peptidoglycan
Matilda
ok
Zubair
what is a process of gene expression in eukaryotes ?
Nayyab Reply
pls help us with the answer
Abdussalam
spontaneous generation means
Siddhi Reply
hiii
Siddhi
Hello
eman
So, what's next 😂
eman
I have a problem with Micro
eman
I studying things and see question Some thing else
eman
Can u help me, please
eman
What i havta do
eman
firsfall when you studying understand things...
Siddhi
good afternoon dear Friends
yaya
Greeting to everyone in here.
Manka
There is a problem. I need a diagram of a virus with it functions.
Manka
structure of bacterial
Kuyiba
gghhhh
Zubair
group plz i need help in microbio
Kuonain
it really difficult fr me
Kuonain
kashur cha kah
suhail
sorry now I read in class 8th but I can help u
Zubair
Me too. It's very difficult for me
Angela
rod shape
Priyanka
helical
Priyanka
Hello
esike
spherical
Priyanka
peomorphic
Priyanka
I am ryt or not
Priyanka
hi
suhail
hello
DIPTI
Are we together pls what's the topic for the day?
esike
what is innate
Lizzy
innate means natural
Pooja
the genetic makeup of an individual
Matilda
pls i need the common names for the following parasites..ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS,NECATOR AMERICANUS,ASCARIES LUMBRICOIDES,TRICHURIS TRICHIURA,TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS,GIARDIA LAMBLIA,ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA,SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI,SCHISTOSOMAHEMATOBIUM,STROGYLOIDES STERCORALIS,AND TRAPANOSOMA BRUCI GAMBIENSE
timothy
ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS and STROGYLOIDES STERCORALIS have the same common name which is pin worm and thread worm
Chinedu
I didn't find the common names for TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS, GIARDIA LAMBLIA, ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA, TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GAMBIENSE
Chinedu
NECATOR AMERICANUS - New world hookworm ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES- Ascarid TRICHURIS TRICHIURA- Whip worm
Chinedu
Hi guys
Chinedu
Why are myeloblasts not present in the bloodstream?
Chinedu
thank u
Dasaah
differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Taiwo Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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