<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Diagnosis of a localized CMV infection can be achieved through direct microscopic evaluation of tissue specimens stained with routine stains (e.g., Wright-Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin, Papanicolaou) and immunohistochemical stains. Cells infected by CMV produce characteristic inclusions with an "owl's eye" appearance; this sign is less sensitive than molecular methods like PCR but more predictive of localized disease ( [link] ). For more severe CMV infection, tests such as enzyme immunoassay (EIA), indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) tests, and PCR, which are based on detection of CMV antigen or DNA, have a higher sensitivity and can determine viral load. Cultivation of the virus from saliva or urine is still the method for detecting CMV in newborn babies up to 3 weeks old. Ganciclovir, valganciclovir , foscarnet , and cidofovir are the first-line antiviral drugs for serious CMV infections.

Micrograph of cells. A large one with a large, dark nucleus is labeled CMV-infected cell.
Cells infected with CMV become enlarged and have a characteristic “owl’s eye” nucleus. This micrograph shows kidney cells from a patient with CMV. (credit: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Compare the diseases caused by HHV-4 and HHV-5.

Arthropod-borne viral diseases

There are a number of arthropod-borne viruses, or arbovirus es , that can cause human disease. Among these are several important hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by mosquitoes. We will discuss three that pose serious threats: yellow fever, chikungunya fever, and dengue fever.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever was once common in the US and caused several serious outbreaks between 1700 and 1900. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “History Timeline Transcript.” http://www.cdc.gov/travel-training/local/HistoryEpidemiologyandVaccination/HistoryTimelineTranscript.pdf. Accessed July 28, 2016. Through vector control efforts, however, this disease has been eliminated in the US. Currently, yellow fever occurs primarily in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. It is caused by the yellow fever virus of the genus Flavivirus (named for the Latin word flavus meaning yellow ), which is transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors. Sylvatic yellow fever occurs in tropical jungle regions of Africa and Central and South America, where the virus can be transmitted from infected monkeys to humans by the mosquitoes Aedes africanus or Haemagogus spp. In urban areas, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is mostly responsible for transmitting the virus between humans.

Most individuals infected with yellow fever virus have no illness or only mild disease. Onset of milder symptoms is sudden, with dizziness, fever of 39–40 °C (102–104 °F), chills, headache, and myalgias. As symptoms worsen, the face becomes flushed, and nausea, vomiting, constipation, severe fatigue, restlessness, and irritability are common. Mild disease may resolve after 1 to 3 days. However, approximately 15% of cases progress to develop moderate to severe yellow fever disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Yellow Fever, Symptoms and Treatment.” 2015 http://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/symptoms/index.html. Accessed July 28, 2016.

Questions & Answers

wat causes sor throat
Ezeama Reply
Streptococcus
Rajat
Streptococcus
Panda
Gram positive
shamim
streptococcus pyrogenes
Sherma
group A streptococcus pyogenes. But not the only one.
Carlos
does the bac of s.aures gives choronic diseas in bone?
Elyas
causes virus bac group A strep allergies smoking
Elyas
truth also virus
Shania
what z microbiology
Mwelwa Reply
microbiology is all about the scientific study of microorganisms, their life changes, their life span, structural punctuality and their phenomenon.
Ridwan
thanks
micah
Best scope in microbiology
Rahul
wat abut skin
Elyas
whatis scope
Amare
what happened when someone died and what happened to the blood
Franca Reply
nice question
Attari
when you die you have no memory and the blood dry off
Falere
what microorganisms is all about?
Ridwan
And how many does the microorganisms is classified?
Ridwan
How are microbs organized
Saskia
what is endoparasites and exo parasite and their example
OGEDE Reply
Endo : inside the body Exo/ecto : outside or on the body
Paul
examples please
OGEDE
Louse for exo/ecto Helminths (worms) for endo
Paul
what's prokaryotic
mohaiminul Reply
A prokaryotic cell is a cell with no membrane bounds organelles
Paul
what are the main effect of parasite?
yunusa Reply
nutritional group of micro organism
Mana Reply
what are the charateristic bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses have in commom
Ami Reply
what type of bacteria ismor serious
Amare
D N A ar purno rup ki
Ruba Reply
বাংলায় দেখবো DNA এর পূর্রন্যরুপ কি
Ruba
what's microbiology
micah
micro biology is the study of micro organisms,those being unicellular multicellular or a cellular
aniisha
deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code.
aniisha
Does the parasite/parasitology are under microbiology or not
yunusa
Define bacteria
Kainat
Bacteria are a type of biological cell & they constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
raisa
what kind of microbiology
Mira
hello what is main function of T and B cells
Ishaq Reply
T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity while B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies)
Janet
what is hepatitis B
Sunday
it's viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases. the virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids...
Dejene
What are fundamental experiment of microbiology?
Lucky Reply
study of microscopic organisms, unicellular and multicellular
Falere
what are the characteristics of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes
Ami
bacteria-are living organism. contain a peptidoglycan/lipopolysaccharide cell wall. VIRUS-are considered as organic structure which interact with living organism don't have acell wall. they have many differents like bacteria size -large(1000nm) virus size-smaller(20-400nm). bacteria ribosomes presen
Dejene
virus ribosomes absence. bacteria living organism. virus b/n living and non-living things
Dejene
eukaryotic cell has a true membrane bond nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmenalization of function
Dejene
This answer is wrong
Jeffrey Reply
who discovered the growth curve
Joy Reply
Example of coccus bacteria
Nweke Reply
staphylococcus aureus
Elton
MRSA any bew information
Satish
pl. read any new information about MRSA
Satish
Any stru tural finding about novel corona virus
Satish
Examples of spiral bacteria
Nweke Reply
Example of Bacillus bacteria
Nweke
pusals
manikanta
another one
Nweke

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask