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  • UHT pasteurization method of pasteurization that exposes milk to ultra-high temperatures (near 140 °C) for a few seconds, effectively sterilizing it so that it can be sealed and stored for long periods without refrigeration
  • ulcer open sore
  • ultramicrotome a device that cuts thin sections for electron microscopy
  • unit membrane biological membrane composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules with the nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic barrier between the polar heads; also called lipid bilayer
  • unsaturated fatty acid lipid with hydrocarbon chains containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds and subsequently fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per chain
  • uracil pyrimidine nitrogenous base found only in RNA nucleotides
  • ureter duct that transports urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  • ureteritis inflammation of the ureter
  • urethra duct through which urine passes from the urinary bladder to leave the body through the urinary meatus
  • urethritis inflammation of the urethra
  • urinary bladder an organ that stores urine until it is ready to be excreted
  • urinary meatus the opening through which urine leaves the body
  • use-dilution test a technique for determining the effectiveness of a chemical disinfectant on a surface; involves dipping a surface in a culture of the targeted microorganism, disinfecting the surface, and then transferring the surface to a fresh medium to see if bacteria will grow
  • uterus female reproductive organ in which a fertilized egg implants and develops


  • vaccination inoculation of a patient with attenuated pathogens or antigens to activate adaptive immunity and protect against infection
  • vagina female reproductive organ that extends from the vulva to the cervix
  • vaginitis inflammation of the vagina
  • vaginosis an infection of the vagina caused by overgrowth of resident bacteria
  • vancomycin cell wall synthesis inhibitor of the glycopeptide class
  • vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) pathogen with intermediate vancomycin resistance due to increased targets for and trapping of vancomycin in the outer cell wall
  • vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pathogens resistant to vancomycin through a target modification of peptidoglycan subunit peptides that inhibit binding by vancomycin
  • vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) pathogen with resistance to vancomycin that has arisen as a result of the horizontal gene transfer of vancomycin resistance genes from VRE
  • variolation the historical practice of inoculating a healthy patient with infectious material from a person infected with smallpox in order to promote immunity to the disease
  • vas deferens pair of ducts in the male reproductive system that conduct sperm from the testes and seminal fluid to the ejaculatory duct
  • vasculitis inflammation affecting blood vessels (either arteries or veins)
  • VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test test for syphilis that detects anti-treponemal antibodies to the phospholipids produced due to the tissue destruction by Treponema pallidum ; antibodies are detected through a flocculation reaction with cardiolipin extracted from beef heart tissue
  • vector animal (typically an arthropod) that transmits a pathogen from one host to another host; DNA molecules that carry DNA fragments from one organism to another
  • vegetative cell a cell that is actively growing and dividing, and does not contain an endospore
  • vehicle transmission transfer of a pathogen between hosts via contaminated food, water, or air
  • vein blood vessel that returns blood from the tissues to the heart for recirculation
  • vertical direct transmission transfer of a pathogen from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding
  • vertical gene transfer transfer of genes from parent to offspring
  • viable cell live cell; live cells are usually detected as colony-forming units
  • viable plate count direct method of measuring microbial growth in a culture; the number of viable or live cells is usually expressed in CFU/mL
  • viral conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by a viral infection
  • viral envelope lipid membrane obtained from phospholipid membranes of the cell that surrounds the capsid
  • viral hemagglutination inhibition assay assay used to quantify the amount of neutralizing antibody against a virus by showing a decrease in hemagglutination caused by a standardized amount of virus
  • viral titer number of virions per unit volume
  • viremia presence of virus in blood
  • viricide chemical or physical treatment that destroys or inactivates viruses
  • virion inert particle that is the reproductive form of a virus
  • viroid infectious plant pathogen composed of RNA
  • virology the study of viruses
  • virulence degree to which an organism is pathogenic; severity of disease signs and symptoms
  • virulence factor product of a pathogen that assists in its ability to cause infection and disease
  • virulent phage bacteriophage for which infection leads to the death of the host cell; a phage that undergoes the lytic cycle
  • virus an acellular microorganism, consisting of proteins and genetic material (DNA or RNA), that can replicate itself by infecting a host cell
  • virusoid small piece of RNA associated with larger RNA of some infectious plant viruses
  • volutin inclusions of polymerized inorganic phosphate; also called metachromatic granules
  • vulva the female external genitalia


  • water activity water content of foods or other materials
  • wavelength the distance between one peak of a wave and the next peak
  • Weil’s disease advanced stage of leptospirosis in which the kidney and liver become seriously infected
  • West African trypanosomiasis chronic form of African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
  • West Nile encephalitis mosquito-borne disease caused by the West Nile virus (WNV) that can result in swelling of the brain and death in severe cases
  • western blot technique used to detect the presence of a certain protein within a given protein sample in which proteins within the sample are separated by PAGE, immobilized on a membrane, and then exposed first to an antibody that binds to the protein of interest and then second to an antibody equipped with a molecular beacon that will bind to the first antibody
  • western equine encephalitis serious but rare mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is found primarily in the central and western United States
  • wet mount a slide preparation technique in which a specimen is placed on the slide in a drop of liquid
  • wheal-flare reaction localized type I hypersensitivity reaction, involving a raised, itchy bump (wheal) and redness (flare), to injected allergen
  • whooping cough common name for pertussis
  • wild type phenotype of an organism that is most commonly observed in nature
  • Winterbottom’s sign acute swelling of lymph nodes at the back of the neck that is an early sign of African trypanosomiasis
  • wobble position third position of a codon that, when changed, typically results in the incorporation of the same amino acid because of the degeneracy of the genetic code
  • World Health Organization (WHO) international public health organization within the United Nations; monitors and communicates international public health information and coordinates international public health programs and emergency interventions


  • xenobiotic compound synthesized by humans and introduced to an environment in much higher concentrations than expected in nature
  • xenograft transplanted tissue from a donor that is of a different species than the recipient
  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia genetic disorder resulting in an inability to produce antibodies
  • x-y mechanical stage knobs knobs on a microscope that are used to adjust the position of the specimen on the stage surface, generally to center it directly above the light


  • yeast any unicellular fungus
  • yeast infection fungal infection of the vagina typically caused by an overgrowth of resident Candida spp.
  • yellow fever mild to potentially fatal mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus


  • Ziehl-Neelsen technique a method of acid-fast staining that uses heat to infuse the primary stain, carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells
  • zone of inhibition clear zone around a filter disk impregnated with an antimicrobial drug, indicating growth inhibition due to the antimicrobial drug
  • zoonosis see zoonotic disease
  • zoonotic disease any disease that is transmitted to humans by animals
  • zooplankton heterotrophic plankton
  • Z-scheme electron flow seen in noncyclic photophosphorylation in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria due to the use of both PSI and PSII
  • zygospores spores used by Zygomycetes for sexual reproduction; they have hard walls formed from the fusion of reproductive cells from two individuals

Questions & Answers

it is the main memory of a person.
Kizza Reply
what is brain
Tope Reply
is the main memory of a person.
it is the centre of the nervous system found in all vertebrates and most invertebrates.
what are the two acids the skin produce
Caro Reply
alpha hydroxy and beta hydroxy there are water soluble compounds and often use as exfoliant
what must a positive strand of an RNA virus do first
Kelsi-Ann Reply
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense single stranded RNA as its genetic material. Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA.
 The positive-sense viral RNA genome can serve as messenger RNA and can be translated into protein in the host cell. Positive-sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification. Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens
such as the hepaci virus C, West nail virus, dengue virus, SARS and MERS coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV-2 as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold.
Why strong acid and alkline are not harmful to mycobacterium bacili?
What are the types of bacteria
John Reply
Do you mean the shapes or the the two different types of bacteria? Bacteria are often described in terms of their general shape. Common shapes include spherical (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), or curved (spirillum, spirochete, or vibrio) The two different types are gram negative or gram positive.
what other characteristics of prokaryotes a bacteria don't have?
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms belonging to the domains Bacteria and Archaea. Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, have no nucelus, and lack organelles. All prokaryotic cells are encased by a cell wall. Many also have a capsule or slime layer made of polysaccharide.
gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria
Most bacteria can be broadly classified as Gram positive or Gram negative. Gram positive bacteria have cell walls composed of thick layers of peptidoglycan.cells stain purple when subjected to a Gram stain procedure. Gram negative bacteria have cell walls with a thin layer of peptidoglycan.
all of you are amazing microbiologists
thanks demisew....
guys what are the two acids the skin produce
what are the bacteria's involved in the decaying of food
Enow Reply
Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus, are capable of causing spoilage.
Corona has a gray and black cell structure ....if yes explain..if no explain
Joshua Reply
multiple questions and answers in microbiology and bio chemistry
Lakshmi Reply
is the study of a bacteria and other organisms
yes..this book is about bacteria & others organisms
biochemistry is the branch of science that dealing of chemical compounds reactions and other processes
have you any question?
yess, Why scientists not search coronavirus vaccines in short time.
they are on
what are the symptoms for tuberculosis
Most people infected with the bacteria that cause tuberculosis don't have symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they usually include a cough (sometimes blood-tinged), weight loss, night sweats and fever.
symptoms tuberculosis. Fever Chills Night sweats Cough Loss of appetite Weight loss Blood in the sputum (phlegm) Loss of energy
can corona virus transmitted from mother to her child through placenta ?
no,but it can through trait
mutation occur in the genome of corona virus. thats why the corona vaccines forming just difficult
yes coz it's spread through the soft body parts more so the openings in our bodies
what is relation between fear (from covid 19 ) and immune sys ?
because it damages the immune system by reduction the action of WBC
reducing pls
how is it possible for a woman to be pregnant and still See's her period
Prince Reply
we term it as discharge
what is immunity
evans Reply
What is a varuis
A submicroscopic infectious organism, now understood to be a non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. It requires a living cell to replicate, and often causes disease
A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate
A virus is a microorganism which invade our bodies causing diseases due to eliciting immune responses by the body against it, can replicate using our genome inducing production of proteins helping them to establish new life inside our bodies.
What are the important of capsules
Marriam Reply
what are the roles of male sex hormones
Testosterone is the principal sex hormone inmales and is produced in the testes (testicles). Dihydrotestosterone is a hormonein which the double bond of testosterone has been reduced by enzyrne reactions in the body. ... The testes perform two functions: They produce sperm, and they producetestoster
Capsules in bacteria protect them from phagocytosis of eukaryotic organisms. This is what makes them virulent and harmful without antibodies.
any one told me definition of amoebic dysentery & amoebic liver dysentery?
Amoebiasis, also known amoebic dysentery, is an infection caused by any of the amobae of the Entamoeba group. Symptoms are most common during infection by Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebiasis can be present with no, mild, or severe symptoms. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea....
u welcome mira
people explain for me this words in public health.tb prevention 1:promotive 2:preventive 3:curative 4:rehabilitative
Capsules function similarly to endospores they provide an extra layer of protection especially in acidic or basic environments. It is also a thicker membrane which can change the osmosis process and can provides resistance to antibotics depending if it is gram negative or positive.
...As some antibotics focus on breaking down the cell wall and is not able to.
what are the clinical classification of amoxicillin?
how does a autoimmune diso ders develop
Oliver Reply
simply autoimmune disease is not completely understood. There are many variations from genetically inherited to acquired by viruses like HIV. Genetically they may not be prominent until an unknown point in one's life. I am far from an expert, I am just reciting what I have learned. Take rheumatoid
what is anatomy
Mohamed Reply
Anatomy is the study of parts of the human body
the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.
Describe the halden effect
The Haldane effect is a property of haemoglobin first described by John ScottHaldane. Oxygenation of blood in the lungs displaces carbon dioxide from hemoglobin which increases the removal of carbon dioxide. This property is the Haldane effect.
Difference between chief cells and parietal cells in the stomach
 Parietal cells are the epithelialcells that secrete HCl and intrinsic factor. They are located in the gastric glands found in lining of fundus and stomach. The gastric chief cells , are cells in the stomach that release pepsinogen and chymosin.
is the study of structure and organs located in human life
listen to Matilda
essay on microbiology and how it contribute to the pharmacy assistant programme
Tagedevi Reply
I want to know how it contribute to the pharmacy assistant programme
Contribute how? If you want to contribute to pharmaceutical stuff you should look for websites with blogs that relate to your interests.
hello i want to know how it contribute to microbiology programs
Microbiology is the study of bacteria and and organisms such as viruses, fungi, and mold. How does this apply to medicine? It applies to medicine or pharmacology because when you get sick you are infected by a pathogen and understanding how these organisms interact with each other helps you to....
develop medicine. A lot of bacteria infections can be cured with various medicines but not all medicines work equally. It depends if your sickness is based on gram positve or negative bacteria, if its s mold or fungus or a virius. Each medicine targets a certain one.
If you need any ideas I recommend looking up Louis Pastar who used microbiology to invent a lot of medicines and contributed greatly to microbiology and pharmaceutical.
what is a bacterial
Eric Reply
Bacteria is a microscopic organism belonging to the kingdom prokaryotic
what is prokaryotic
if you are here, read this free book, it is mostly correct, there are a few pictures that should be corrected
A prokaryotes does not have lipid- bilayer bound organelles, they can reproduce by binary fission, they have a DNA region, most have a cell well, contains a plasmid, 70s ribosomes, high mutation rate due lack of certain DNA replication enzymes.

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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