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  • UHT pasteurization method of pasteurization that exposes milk to ultra-high temperatures (near 140 °C) for a few seconds, effectively sterilizing it so that it can be sealed and stored for long periods without refrigeration
  • ulcer open sore
  • ultramicrotome a device that cuts thin sections for electron microscopy
  • unit membrane biological membrane composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules with the nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic barrier between the polar heads; also called lipid bilayer
  • unsaturated fatty acid lipid with hydrocarbon chains containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds and subsequently fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per chain
  • uracil pyrimidine nitrogenous base found only in RNA nucleotides
  • ureter duct that transports urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  • ureteritis inflammation of the ureter
  • urethra duct through which urine passes from the urinary bladder to leave the body through the urinary meatus
  • urethritis inflammation of the urethra
  • urinary bladder an organ that stores urine until it is ready to be excreted
  • urinary meatus the opening through which urine leaves the body
  • use-dilution test a technique for determining the effectiveness of a chemical disinfectant on a surface; involves dipping a surface in a culture of the targeted microorganism, disinfecting the surface, and then transferring the surface to a fresh medium to see if bacteria will grow
  • uterus female reproductive organ in which a fertilized egg implants and develops


  • vaccination inoculation of a patient with attenuated pathogens or antigens to activate adaptive immunity and protect against infection
  • vagina female reproductive organ that extends from the vulva to the cervix
  • vaginitis inflammation of the vagina
  • vaginosis an infection of the vagina caused by overgrowth of resident bacteria
  • vancomycin cell wall synthesis inhibitor of the glycopeptide class
  • vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) pathogen with intermediate vancomycin resistance due to increased targets for and trapping of vancomycin in the outer cell wall
  • vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pathogens resistant to vancomycin through a target modification of peptidoglycan subunit peptides that inhibit binding by vancomycin
  • vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) pathogen with resistance to vancomycin that has arisen as a result of the horizontal gene transfer of vancomycin resistance genes from VRE
  • variolation the historical practice of inoculating a healthy patient with infectious material from a person infected with smallpox in order to promote immunity to the disease
  • vas deferens pair of ducts in the male reproductive system that conduct sperm from the testes and seminal fluid to the ejaculatory duct
  • vasculitis inflammation affecting blood vessels (either arteries or veins)
  • VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test test for syphilis that detects anti-treponemal antibodies to the phospholipids produced due to the tissue destruction by Treponema pallidum ; antibodies are detected through a flocculation reaction with cardiolipin extracted from beef heart tissue
  • vector animal (typically an arthropod) that transmits a pathogen from one host to another host; DNA molecules that carry DNA fragments from one organism to another
  • vegetative cell a cell that is actively growing and dividing, and does not contain an endospore
  • vehicle transmission transfer of a pathogen between hosts via contaminated food, water, or air
  • vein blood vessel that returns blood from the tissues to the heart for recirculation
  • vertical direct transmission transfer of a pathogen from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding
  • vertical gene transfer transfer of genes from parent to offspring
  • viable cell live cell; live cells are usually detected as colony-forming units
  • viable plate count direct method of measuring microbial growth in a culture; the number of viable or live cells is usually expressed in CFU/mL
  • viral conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by a viral infection
  • viral envelope lipid membrane obtained from phospholipid membranes of the cell that surrounds the capsid
  • viral hemagglutination inhibition assay assay used to quantify the amount of neutralizing antibody against a virus by showing a decrease in hemagglutination caused by a standardized amount of virus
  • viral titer number of virions per unit volume
  • viremia presence of virus in blood
  • viricide chemical or physical treatment that destroys or inactivates viruses
  • virion inert particle that is the reproductive form of a virus
  • viroid infectious plant pathogen composed of RNA
  • virology the study of viruses
  • virulence degree to which an organism is pathogenic; severity of disease signs and symptoms
  • virulence factor product of a pathogen that assists in its ability to cause infection and disease
  • virulent phage bacteriophage for which infection leads to the death of the host cell; a phage that undergoes the lytic cycle
  • virus an acellular microorganism, consisting of proteins and genetic material (DNA or RNA), that can replicate itself by infecting a host cell
  • virusoid small piece of RNA associated with larger RNA of some infectious plant viruses
  • volutin inclusions of polymerized inorganic phosphate; also called metachromatic granules
  • vulva the female external genitalia


  • water activity water content of foods or other materials
  • wavelength the distance between one peak of a wave and the next peak
  • Weil’s disease advanced stage of leptospirosis in which the kidney and liver become seriously infected
  • West African trypanosomiasis chronic form of African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
  • West Nile encephalitis mosquito-borne disease caused by the West Nile virus (WNV) that can result in swelling of the brain and death in severe cases
  • western blot technique used to detect the presence of a certain protein within a given protein sample in which proteins within the sample are separated by PAGE, immobilized on a membrane, and then exposed first to an antibody that binds to the protein of interest and then second to an antibody equipped with a molecular beacon that will bind to the first antibody
  • western equine encephalitis serious but rare mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is found primarily in the central and western United States
  • wet mount a slide preparation technique in which a specimen is placed on the slide in a drop of liquid
  • wheal-flare reaction localized type I hypersensitivity reaction, involving a raised, itchy bump (wheal) and redness (flare), to injected allergen
  • whooping cough common name for pertussis
  • wild type phenotype of an organism that is most commonly observed in nature
  • Winterbottom’s sign acute swelling of lymph nodes at the back of the neck that is an early sign of African trypanosomiasis
  • wobble position third position of a codon that, when changed, typically results in the incorporation of the same amino acid because of the degeneracy of the genetic code
  • World Health Organization (WHO) international public health organization within the United Nations; monitors and communicates international public health information and coordinates international public health programs and emergency interventions


  • xenobiotic compound synthesized by humans and introduced to an environment in much higher concentrations than expected in nature
  • xenograft transplanted tissue from a donor that is of a different species than the recipient
  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia genetic disorder resulting in an inability to produce antibodies
  • x-y mechanical stage knobs knobs on a microscope that are used to adjust the position of the specimen on the stage surface, generally to center it directly above the light


  • yeast any unicellular fungus
  • yeast infection fungal infection of the vagina typically caused by an overgrowth of resident Candida spp.
  • yellow fever mild to potentially fatal mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus


  • Ziehl-Neelsen technique a method of acid-fast staining that uses heat to infuse the primary stain, carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells
  • zone of inhibition clear zone around a filter disk impregnated with an antimicrobial drug, indicating growth inhibition due to the antimicrobial drug
  • zoonosis see zoonotic disease
  • zoonotic disease any disease that is transmitted to humans by animals
  • zooplankton heterotrophic plankton
  • Z-scheme electron flow seen in noncyclic photophosphorylation in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria due to the use of both PSI and PSII
  • zygospores spores used by Zygomycetes for sexual reproduction; they have hard walls formed from the fusion of reproductive cells from two individuals

Questions & Answers

Parabens are used as a?
Qwert Reply
what is microbiology
Carol Reply
de study of small living microorganism
what are the benefits microbiologist derive from the follow areas: 1. medicine 2. Environmental science 3. Food and drink production 4. Fundamental research 5. Agriculture 6. pharmaceutical industry 7. Genetic engineering
microbial genetics mcqs
kajal Reply
what is the importance of learning microbiology in nursing?
Grace Reply
it's about child-care?
the way of common children disease? hmm 🤔🤔
how do you mean child care?
Was ist die Wichtigkeit beim Lernen von Mikrtobiologie in der Pflege? Es ist notwendig dass die Schwestern allgemein und auch die Kinderschwestern eine Ausbildung in der Mikrobiologie erfahren. Sie sind in ihrem Beruf gefo
you need to know the truth about diseases. the microbes are have immunity to some pharmacy.
is base pairing rule states that adenine pair with thymine cytosine pair with guannie what will be the complementry strand to acggt
KooL Reply
introduction to microbiology
Shweta Reply
Study the life of microorganisms present in the environment their survivals etc..
Microscopic organisms, commonly known as microorganisms or microbes, are found all around us and even inside our bodies. The category 'Microbes' includes a massive range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, archaea and protozoa.
fermented foods likely benefited ancestors to preserve foods and make other foods like milk, cheese, and bread using microbes.
Zinnia Reply
the evidence that I would support the statement regarding ancient people ideas that disease was transmitted by things they could not see is by the discoveries under a microscope. Many microbiologists have discovered certain diseases caused by microbes.
plz give the information about glyoxylate cycle
kamini Reply
what type of information?
I need medical microbiology mcqs books for Mbbs
for pakistani mbbs or other?
what is microbial soup?
Osborn Reply
😃😂funny question isn't it?!!! sorry for inconvenience 😊
most bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans are classified in terms if their preferable ph as
Beesan Reply
what is micro
Kabul Reply
extremely small in size
almost invisible to the naked eye
invisible sized objects
invisible sized object or specimens.which is used to see in only the microscope that specimens or objective called the micro
small organism that can be seen by use of Microbes
why do you need to study microorganisms
what is microbiology?
Green Reply
microbiology is a branch of biology .it deals with the study of microorganisms life cycle , uses, disadvantages,and it impact in any other fields .which is used to view in microscope .
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology and parasitology. 
In short , it is the study of micro organisms and types , characteristics.
can you explain the structure of rna in detail
Dhanalakshmi Reply
RNA is of many types....like mRNA,tRNA,rRNA,snRNA,guideRNA..etc .
but generally RNA is single stranded
It contains adenine guanine cytosine , instead of thymine it contains uracil.
ribonucleic acid present in RNA.. where as in DNA it is deoxyribonucleic acid...and ribonucleotide is present in RNA
RNA is a blue print of DNA. it has the information from DNA....and we can predict the base panirs in DNA if we have the RNA....copy of that DNA
can either have positive or negative polarity
Diatoms need..... With the help of which they can construct their beautiful cell wall
Prathmesh Reply
Microbial growth curve shows a.... Curve.
Shambhuraj Reply
diminishing curve
It represents the decreasing growth of an organism.

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