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  • With a doubling time of 30 minutes and a starting population size of 1 × 10 5 cells, how many cells will be present after 2 hours, assuming no cell death?

The growth curve

Microorganisms grown in closed culture (also known as a batch culture ), in which no nutrients are added and most waste is not removed, follow a reproducible growth pattern referred to as the growth curve . An example of a batch culture in nature is a pond in which a small number of cells grow in a closed environment. The culture density is defined as the number of cells per unit volume. In a closed environment, the culture density is also a measure of the number of cells in the population. Infections of the body do not always follow the growth curve, but correlations can exist depending upon the site and type of infection. When the number of live cells is plotted against time, distinct phases can be observed in the curve ( [link] ).

A graph with time on the X axis and logarithm of living bacterial cells on the Y axis. The line of the graph begins towards the bottom of the Y axis and is flat for a short time. This is labeled 1) lag phase: no increase in number of living bacterial cells. Next the line slopes upwards. This is labeled Log phase: exponential increase in number of living bacterial cells. Next the line flattens again. This is labeled 3) Stationary phase: plateau in number of living bacterial cells; rate of cell division and death roughly equal. Final the line slopes downwards. This is labeled 4) Death or decline phase: exponential decrease in number of living bacterial cells.
The growth curve of a bacterial culture is represented by the logarithm of the number of live cells plotted as a function of time. The graph can be divided into four phases according to the slope, each of which matches events in the cell. The four phases are lag, log, stationary, and death.

The lag phase

The beginning of the growth curve represents a small number of cells, referred to as an inoculum , that are added to a fresh culture medium , a nutritional broth that supports growth. The initial phase of the growth curve is called the lag phase , during which cells are gearing up for the next phase of growth. The number of cells does not change during the lag phase; however, cells grow larger and are metabolically active, synthesizing proteins needed to grow within the medium. If any cells were damaged or shocked during the transfer to the new medium, repair takes place during the lag phase. The duration of the lag phase is determined by many factors, including the species and genetic make-up of the cells, the composition of the medium, and the size of the original inoculum.

The log phase

In the logarithmic (log) growth phase , sometimes called exponential growth phase , the cells are actively dividing by binary fission and their number increases exponentially. For any given bacterial species, the generation time under specific growth conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, and so forth) is genetically determined, and this generation time is called the intrinsic growth rate . During the log phase, the relationship between time and number of cells is not linear but exponential; however, the growth curve is often plotted on a semilogarithmic graph, as shown in [link] , which gives the appearance of a linear relationship.

a) An arithmetic scale graph showing log phase growth. The X axis is time (hours) and the Y ais is cells per ml. The line on this graph starts fairly flat with readings of (1,2) and (5,32) but quickly slopes up steeply with a final reading of (10, 1024). B) is a semilog scale graph of log phase growth. Again the X axis is time (hours) and the Y axis is cells per ml. But the intervals of the Y axis more clearly show the difference between 10 superscript 1 and 10 superscript 3. The line on this graph is a straight line diagonally across the graph with points of (1,2), (5,32) and (10,1024) – just like the first graph. The equation for both graphs is N=2 superscript n.
Both graphs illustrate population growth during the log phase for a bacterial sample with an initial population of one cell and a doubling time of 1 hour. (a) When plotted on an arithmetic scale, the growth rate resembles a curve. (b) When plotted on a semilogarithmic scale (meaning the values on the y -axis are logarithmic), the growth rate appears linear.

Cells in the log phase show constant growth rate and uniform metabolic activity. For this reason, cells in the log phase are preferentially used for industrial applications and research work. The log phase is also the stage where bacteria are the most susceptible to the action of disinfectants and common antibiotics that affect protein, DNA, and cell-wall synthesis.

Questions & Answers

is it better to study microbiology and then medicine it makes no difference to go directly to medicine?
Jessee Reply
Dray's mathdme cell wall konse color k hote he
Jinal Reply
what is dray's mathdme cell wall
Prabhat
I confused. please help me
Karen
just confused
Raj
l don't understand it please explain it for me.
Karen Reply
epitopes are present on the surface of
Rohit Reply
at the tip of variable region on the antibody...where antigen and antibody binding sites combine...
Fiza
The term that is used refer to moving microbes under a microscope are referred to as?
Lee Reply
Members of the genus Neisseria cause which of the folowing human diseases?
Farah Reply
genital infections
Kamaluddeen
gonorrhoea
sandip
gonorrhoea
Jessee
4. Which of the following specimens should not be refrigerated? a. Urine b. Urogenital swab
Zahraa Reply
urine
Muuse
urine
Agatha
Urine
Tean
urine
Yasser
Urine
Ebtehal
urine
anamika
urine
Puja
urine
Inemesit
urine
Samuel
Urine
Muhammad
Details about McConkey agar
Muhammad
urine
SK
urine
what is bacteria
anamika Reply
a member of large number of unicellular microorganism which have cell wall but lack of cell organelles an oranised nucleus including somewhat can cause disease
Sukhdeep
Bacteria are usually composed of one cell onl to that are neither plants nor animals, microscopic, that may cause diseases or may be beneficial(in gut)... it depends upon their weapons. Nearly all animal life is dependent on Bacteria for their survival
Fiza
thanks
anamika
what factor make bacteria colony large and how could we sterlise it in large scale
fatty
nutrient concentration temp gaseous conc ph ion or salt concentration mositure condition factors contribute to make large colony. by autoclaving we will sterilize bactetia
Sukhdeep
Colony is actually visible growth of Bacteria that is as a result of suitable environment for growth i.e optimal conditions for growth, temperature, moisture etc. there're many methods to get rid of bacteria. If We stop giving them optimal conditions for living Bacteria will die soon .
Fiza
what's the difference between an antigen and a pathogen?
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease in other organisms whereas Antigen is a part of a pathogen that triggers the immune response..
Rajat
so it is the antigen that dendritic cells present to the T cells and not the pathogen itself?
no no antigen are the west product or part of the pathogen. in such case bacteria it self fight with over immune response & in another case bacteria release antigens
vasava
& other antigen like pollan grain, dust particles etc.....
vasava
pathogen are microbes that can infect the body and causw illness....antigens are the part of pathogens that alert the body to an infection
Sukhdeep
antigen is a part of blood and pathogen is foreign particle which causes diseases
Yogyata
antigen could be non microorganism.... where as pathogen is mixroorganism
tadesse
Thanks
Karen
a pathogen is a disease causing organism while an antigen is a protein in the white blood cells which combats pathogens.
Jessee
what type of widal test
sobhit Reply
this test determine for typhoid in this test if H,O antigen are present that indicate the positive test bac. are salmonella typhy
vasava
what h.o denotes
Iqra
o: body of bacteria, h: flagellate
Explain Mould
Chinenye Reply
Explain mycoses and it's classification
Chinenye
why do we have hiccups?
Manisha Reply
shakey diaphragm
Curlisse
The antibody binding site is formed primarily by:
Asalla Reply
How many types of MICROORGANISMS do we have?
Hope Reply
Hello friends
Hope
microorganisms are divided into seven type Bacteria archaea protozoa algae fungi virus and multicellular animal parasites
Raj
What's pathogenesity
Usman Reply
something that causes disease
Anietie
who is the father of microbiology?
Hope
antonie van leeuwenhoek
vasava
it is the severity of the effects caused by a pathogen
Jessee

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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