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a) phot of worms filling the intestines. B) photo of a large handful of worms. C) photo of a circle in a thicker circle. The outer circle is about 60 micrometers.
(a) Adult Ascaris lumbricoides roundworms can cause intestinal blockage. (b) This mass of A. lumbricoides worms was excreted by a child. (c) A micrograph of a fertilized egg of A. lumbricoides. Fertilized eggs can be distinguished from unfertilized eggs because they are round rather than elongated and have a thicker cell wall. (credit a: modification of work by South African Medical Research Council; credit b: modification of work by James Gathany, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit c: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Describe the route by which A. lumbricoides reaches the host’s intestines as an adult worm.

Hookworm

Two species of nematode worms are associated with hookworm infection . Both species are found in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Necator americanus is found predominantly in the United States and Australia. Another species, Ancylostoma doudenale , is found in southern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

The eggs of these species develop into larvae in soil contaminated by dog or cat feces. These larvae can penetrate the skin. After traveling through the venous circulation, they reach the lungs. When they are coughed up, they are then swallowed and can enter the intestine and develop into mature adults. At this stage, they attach to the wall of the intestine, where they feed on blood and can potentially cause anemia. Signs and symptoms include cough, an itchy rash, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In children, hookworms can affect physical and cognitive growth.

Some hookworm species, such as Ancylostoma braziliense that is commonly found in animals such as cats and dogs, can penetrate human skin and migrate, causing cutaneous larva migrans , a skin disease caused by the larvae of hookworms. As they move across the skin, in the subcutaneous tissue, pruritic tracks appear ( [link] ).

The infection is diagnosed using microscopic examination of the stool, allowing for observation of eggs in the feces. Medications such as albendazole , mebendazole , and pyrantel pamoate are used as needed to treat systemic infection. In addition to systemic medication for symptoms associated with cutaneous larva migrans, topical thiabendazole is applied to the affected areas.

a) photo of a cler worm attached to tissue. B) photo of red lines in the skin. c) Micrograph of an oval structure.
(a) This animal hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum , is attached to the intestinal wall. (b) The tracks of hookworms are visible in this individual with cutaneous larva migrans. (c) This micrograph shows the microscopic egg of a hookworm. (credit a, c: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Strongyloidiasis

Strongyloidiasis is generally caused by Strongyloides stercoralis , a soil-transmitted helminth with both free-living and parasitic forms. In the parasitic form, the larvae of these nematodes generally penetrate the body through the skin, especially through bare feet, although transmission through organ transplantation or at facilities like day-care centers can also occur. When excreted in the stool, larvae can become free-living adults rather than developing into the parasitic form. These free-living worms reproduce, laying eggs that hatch into larvae that can develop into the parasitic form. In the parasitic life cycle, infective larvae enter the skin, generally through the feet. The larvae reach the circulatory system, which allows them to travel to the alveolar spaces of the lungs. They are transported to the pharynx where, like many other helminths, the infected patient coughs them up and swallows them again so that they return to the intestine . Once they reach the intestine, females live in the epithelium and produce eggs that develop asexually, unlike the free-living forms, which use sexual reproduction. The larvae may be excreted in the stool or can reinfect the host by entering the tissue of the intestines and skin around the anus, which can lead to chronic infections.

Questions & Answers

what is parasitic helminths
Sadiya Reply
list three categories of symbiotic relationships.
mary Reply
what's the difference between microbial intoxication and infectious diseases
dranimva Reply
microbial intoxication results when a person ingests a toxin or a poisonous substance that has been produced by a microbe while infectious disease results when a pathogen colonize the body and subsequently cause disease.
mary
weighing balance is needed in lab of microbiology for weighing?
amna Reply
It is mainly used for media preparation and product testing purpose.
Nakaweesi
thank you for your joining
nuur
what is microbiology
Shamsuddeen Reply
study of living organisms that are too small to be visible with naked eye
Marah
yes
Ahmed
microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular(single cell), multicellular( cell colony), or acellular (lacking cell).
munachimso
is the word Atypical or a typical bacteria. .am confused pliz help
MUWANGUZI Reply
typical bacteria
Zulpha
okay thank you what does that mean
MUWANGUZI
atypical means that it has some characters from bacteria not all characters ...but tybical means that it has all the characters that bacteria have
Reham
thank you Zulpha
MUWANGUZI
some examples please
MUWANGUZI
thank you Reham
MUWANGUZI
1) typical bacteria contain a cell wall whereas atypical bacteria usually do not contain a cell . 2) typical bacteria can be either Gram-positive or Gram-negative while atypical bacteria remain colorless with Gram staining. 3) cells of typical bacteria are large ,while cells of the atypical small
Marah
Example of atypical : Mycoplasma pneumoniae , chlamydophila pneumoniae , legionella
Marah
what is micro biology
Jauharah Reply
is the study of organisms which can't be viewed by our necked eyes
Egumat
Because it preexisting causing secondary infection after collateral damage of normal microbota
Rafaa Reply
combinations of drugs that can't be taken together and why
Grace Reply
Antagonism: the combined action is less than that of the more effective agent when used alone). All these effects may be observed in vitro (particularly in terms of bactericidal rate) and in vivo والله اعلم
Lenovo
....fermentros have 1-15litre capacity
AMAR Reply
which of the following microorganisms are classified as eukaryotic?
Semugab Reply
how do I see the list?
Melissa
what are the choices?
Melissa
dear tell us the choices
MUWANGUZI
mr semugab give us the list please
Nambi
Fungi
munachimso
what are the new discoveries of microorganisms
Ezibon Reply
bacteriology,viriology,micrology
Egumat
understanding of contributed to attempts to treat contain disease
james Reply
what is a bacteria
ROSE Reply
yes tell us
Judith
a bacteria is the largest living organisms on the planet Earth
Egumat
oh, sure. we have also one big here nearby!
Maxim
Bacteria is a large group of single-cell microorganisms. some causes infections and disease in animals and humans..
munachimso
do you mean procariots?
Maxim
Types of Respiratory diseases Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Asthma, Lung cancer, Emphysema.
Enoch Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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