<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
ATP synthase is an enzyme that spans the cytoplasmic membrane. H+ flow in through this protein from the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm. On the inner side of the protein, this flow of H+ is used to build ATP from ADP and Pi.
The bacterial electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes, electron carriers, and ion pumps that is used to pump H + out of the bacterial cytoplasm into the extracellular space. H + flows back down the electrochemical gradient into the bacterial cytoplasm through ATP synthase, providing the energy for ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation.(credit: modification of work by Klaus Hoffmeier)

The number of ATP molecules generated from the catabolism of glucose varies. For example, the number of hydrogen ions that the electron transport system complexes can pump through the membrane varies between different species of organisms. In aerobic respiration in mitochondria, the passage of electrons from one molecule of NADH generates enough proton motive force to make three ATP molecules by oxidative phosphorylation, whereas the passage of electrons from one molecule of FADH 2 generates enough proton motive force to make only two ATP molecules. Thus, the 10 NADH molecules made per glucose during glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle carry enough energy to make 30 ATP molecules, whereas the two FADH 2 molecules made per glucose during these processes provide enough energy to make four ATP molecules. Overall, the theoretical maximum yield of ATP made during the complete aerobic respiration of glucose is 38 molecules, with four being made by substrate-level phosphorylation and 34 being made by oxidative phosphorylation ( [link] ). In reality, the total ATP yield is usually less, ranging from one to 34 ATP molecules, depending on whether the cell is using aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration; in eukaryotic cells, some energy is expended to transport intermediates from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, affecting ATP yield.

[link] summarizes the theoretical maximum yields of ATP from various processes during the complete aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule.

In glycolysis (EMP) carbon moves from glucose (6C) to 2 pyruvate (3C). The molecules of reduced coenzyme produced are 2 NADH. The net ATP molecules made by substrate level phosphorylation is 2 ATP. The net ATP molecules made by oxidative phosphorylation is 6 ATP from 2 NADH. The theoretical maximum yield of ATP molecules is 8. In the transition reaction carbon moves from 2 pyruvate (3C) to 2 acetyl (2C) + 2 CO2. The molecules of reduced coenzyme produced are 2 NADH. The net ATP molecules made by substrate level phosphorylation is 0 ATP. The net ATP molecules made by oxidative phosphorylation is 6 ATP from 2 NADH. The theoretical maximum yield of ATP molecules is 6. In the Krebs cycle carbon moves from 2 acetyl (2C) to 4 CO2. The molecules of reduced coenzyme produced are 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. The net ATP molecules made by substrate level phosphorylation is 2 ATP. The net ATP molecules made by oxidative phosphorylation is 18 ATP from 6 NADH and 4 ATP from 2 FADH2. The theoretical maximum yield of ATP molecules is 24. In total carbon moves from glucose (6C) to 6 CO2. The molecules of reduced coenzyme produced are 10 NADH and 2 FADH2. The net ATP molecules made by substrate level phosphorylation is 4 ATP. The net ATP molecules made by oxidative phosphorylation is 34 ATP. The theoretical maximum yield of ATP molecules is 38.
  • What are the functions of the proton motive force?

Key concepts and summary

  • Most ATP generated during the cellular respiration of glucose is made by oxidative phosphorylation .
  • An electron transport system (ETS) is composed of a series of membrane-associated protein complexes and associated mobile accessory electron carriers. The ETS is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.
  • Each ETS complex has a different redox potential, and electrons move from electron carriers with more negative redox potential to those with more positive redox potential.
  • To carry out aerobic respiration , a cell requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor. A cell also needs a complete Krebs cycle, an appropriate cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen detoxification enzymes to prevent the harmful effects of oxygen radicals produced during aerobic respiration.
  • Organisms performing anaerobic respiration use alternative electron transport system carriers for the ultimate transfer of electrons to the final non-oxygen electron acceptors.
  • Microbes show great variation in the composition of their electron transport systems, which can be used for diagnostic purposes to help identify certain pathogens.
  • As electrons are passed from NADH and FADH 2 through an ETS, the electron loses energy. This energy is stored through the pumping of H + across the membrane, generating a proton motive force .
  • The energy of this proton motive force can be harnessed by allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse back through the membrane by chemiosmosis using ATP synthase . As hydrogen ions diffuse through down their electrochemical gradient, components of ATP synthase spin, making ATP from ADP and P i by oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Aerobic respiration forms more ATP (a maximum of 34 ATP molecules) during oxidative phosphorylation than does anaerobic respiration (between one and 32 ATP molecules).

Fill in the blank

The final ETS complex used in aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted electrons to oxygen to form H 2 O is called ________.

cytochrome oxidase

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

The passage of hydrogen ions through ________ down their electrochemical gradient harnesses the energy needed for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation.

ATP synthase

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

True/false

All organisms that use aerobic cellular respiration have cytochrome oxidase.

True

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Short answer

What is the relationship between chemiosmosis and the proton motive force?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

How does oxidative phosphorylation differ from substrate-level phosphorylation?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

How does the location of ATP synthase differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Where do protons accumulate as a result of the ETS in each cell type?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

what is fermentation example ?
Sonal Reply
is proceess in which an agent couses of an oganic substances breakdown into simpler substance,especially in aneorobic breakdown of suger into alcohol.
Okashat
is it better to study microbiology and then medicine it makes no difference to go directly to medicine?
Jessee Reply
Dray's mathdme cell wall konse color k hote he
Jinal Reply
what is dray's mathdme cell wall
Prabhat
I confused. please help me
Karen
just confused
Raj
l don't understand it please explain it for me.
Karen Reply
epitopes are present on the surface of
Rohit Reply
at the tip of variable region on the antibody...where antigen and antibody binding sites combine...
Fiza
The term that is used refer to moving microbes under a microscope are referred to as?
Lee Reply
Members of the genus Neisseria cause which of the folowing human diseases?
Farah Reply
genital infections
Kamaluddeen
gonorrhoea
sandip
gonorrhoea
Jessee
4. Which of the following specimens should not be refrigerated? a. Urine b. Urogenital swab
Zahraa Reply
urine
Muuse
urine
Agatha
Urine
Tean
urine
Yasser
Urine
Ebtehal
urine
anamika
urine
Puja
urine
Inemesit
urine
Samuel
Urine
Muhammad
Details about McConkey agar
Muhammad
urine
SK
urine
what is bacteria
anamika Reply
a member of large number of unicellular microorganism which have cell wall but lack of cell organelles an oranised nucleus including somewhat can cause disease
Sukhdeep
Bacteria are usually composed of one cell onl to that are neither plants nor animals, microscopic, that may cause diseases or may be beneficial(in gut)... it depends upon their weapons. Nearly all animal life is dependent on Bacteria for their survival
Fiza
thanks
anamika
what factor make bacteria colony large and how could we sterlise it in large scale
fatty
nutrient concentration temp gaseous conc ph ion or salt concentration mositure condition factors contribute to make large colony. by autoclaving we will sterilize bactetia
Sukhdeep
Colony is actually visible growth of Bacteria that is as a result of suitable environment for growth i.e optimal conditions for growth, temperature, moisture etc. there're many methods to get rid of bacteria. If We stop giving them optimal conditions for living Bacteria will die soon .
Fiza
what's the difference between an antigen and a pathogen?
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease in other organisms whereas Antigen is a part of a pathogen that triggers the immune response..
Rajat
so it is the antigen that dendritic cells present to the T cells and not the pathogen itself?
no no antigen are the west product or part of the pathogen. in such case bacteria it self fight with over immune response & in another case bacteria release antigens
vasava
& other antigen like pollan grain, dust particles etc.....
vasava
pathogen are microbes that can infect the body and causw illness....antigens are the part of pathogens that alert the body to an infection
Sukhdeep
antigen is a part of blood and pathogen is foreign particle which causes diseases
Yogyata
antigen could be non microorganism.... where as pathogen is mixroorganism
tadesse
Thanks
Karen
a pathogen is a disease causing organism while an antigen is a protein in the white blood cells which combats pathogens.
Jessee
what type of widal test
sobhit Reply
this test determine for typhoid in this test if H,O antigen are present that indicate the positive test bac. are salmonella typhy
vasava
what h.o denotes
Iqra
o: body of bacteria, h: flagellate
Explain Mould
Chinenye Reply
Explain mycoses and it's classification
Chinenye
why do we have hiccups?
Manisha Reply
shakey diaphragm
Curlisse
The antibody binding site is formed primarily by:
Asalla Reply
How many types of MICROORGANISMS do we have?
Hope Reply
Hello friends
Hope
microorganisms are divided into seven type Bacteria archaea protozoa algae fungi virus and multicellular animal parasites
Raj
Practice MCQ 5

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask