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A photo of test tubes. The one on the left has white tape, the one on the right has the same white tape but it now has a black line.
The white strips on autoclave tape (left tube) turn dark during a successful autoclave run (right tube). (credit: modification of work by Brian Forster)

Pasteurization

Although complete sterilization is ideal for many medical applications, it is not always practical for other applications and may also alter the quality of the product. Boiling and autoclaving are not ideal ways to control microbial growth in many foods because these methods may ruin the consistency and other organoleptic (sensory) qualities of the food. Pasteurization is a form of microbial control for food that uses heat but does not render the food sterile. Traditional pasteurization kills pathogens and reduces the number of spoilage-causing microbes while maintaining food quality. The process of pasteurization was first developed by Louis Pasteur in the 1860s as a method for preventing the spoilage of beer and wine. Today, pasteurization is most commonly used to kill heat-sensitive pathogens in milk and other food products (e.g., apple juice and honey) ( [link] ). However, because pasteurized food products are not sterile, they will eventually spoil.

The methods used for milk pasteurization balance the temperature and the length of time of treatment. One method, high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization , exposes milk to a temperature of 72 °C for 15 seconds, which lowers bacterial numbers while preserving the quality of the milk. An alternative is ultra-high-temperature (UHT) pasteurization , in which the milk is exposed to a temperature of 138 °C for 2 or more seconds. UHT pasteurized milk can be stored for a long time in sealed containers without being refrigerated; however, the very high temperatures alter the proteins in the milk, causing slight changes in the taste and smell. Still, this method of pasteurization is advantageous in regions where access to refrigeration is limited.

Pasteurization shows an image of a large machine. To the left is HTST pasteurization where milk is heated at 72 degrees C for 15 seconds, then boiled and refrigerated. To the right is UHT pasteurization where milk is heated at 138 degrees C for 2 or more seconds, then sealed in airtight containers for up to 90 days without refrigeration. To the bottom is the following test: milkborne organisms killed by pasteurization: Campylobacter jejuni, Coxiella burnetii, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica.
Two different methods of pasteurization, HTST and UHT, are commonly used to kill pathogens associated with milk spoilage. (credit left: modification of work by Mark Hillary; credit right: modification of work by Kerry Ceszyk)
  • In an autoclave, how are temperatures above boiling achieved?
  • How would the onset of spoilage compare between HTST-pasteurized and UHT-pasteurized milk?
  • Why is boiling not used as a sterilization method in a clinical setting?

Refrigeration and freezing

Just as high temperatures are effective for controlling microbial growth, exposing microbes to low temperatures can also be an easy and effective method of microbial control, with the exception of psychrophiles , which prefer cold temperatures (see Temperature and Microbial Growth ). Refrigerators used in home kitchens or in the laboratory maintain temperatures between 0 °C and 7 °C. This temperature range inhibits microbial metabolism, slowing the growth of microorganisms significantly and helping preserve refrigerated products such as foods or medical supplies. Certain types of laboratory cultures can be preserved by refrigeration for later use.

Questions & Answers

write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas
what are the five predisposing factors of opportunistic infections
Asher Reply
1. long term exposure to diseases, that the body immunity weakens.
prosper
2. Nature Of some diseases to weaken body immunity such as, AIDS.
prosper
3. Use of immuno-suppresive drugs.
prosper
anyone... need a hand here 🙋😞
prosper
Low immune is the major cause eg for kaposis sarcoma
Davismith
suitable conditions e.g temp,
Muhammad
what os gnormal flora
kifayat Reply
morphological and genetic classification of bacteria
Potter Reply
what is the morphogical
Bupe
h
Sudhir
morphologycal is defined as relating to the branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms,and with relationship between their structures.
Nadiya
relating to the form or structure of things .
Nadiya
what is the meaning of lessions
oluwa
i am frim Afghanistan.
wahidullah Reply
iam from iraq
Haidar
and i'm from pakistan
Muhammad
Nice
Amina
what's about the qualification
Muhammad
Hlo
Asiya
Hmm
Number
Almustafa Muhammad from Nigeria
Mujtafa
am ustaz Abdulsalam from Ghana
ustaz
am Bupe Chifita from Zambia
Bupe
what is microbiology
Bupe
is the study of invisible micro organism
Mujtafa
microbiology is the study of very too small organisms which we can't see with naked eyes ......in other words ....study of microorganism is called microbiology.
Nadiya
Hello! How Can Microorganisms Be Isolated From The Skin?.. 5 ways if possible. (briefly)
prosper
from skin swabbing is the prefer method worldwide
Muhammad
thanks Muhammad Nauman very much!
prosper
hi
Meek
hi Meek
prosper
are there any other ways pals?
prosper
hi prosper
Meek
hello Meek Mild.
prosper
Any question or ideas, Meek?😊
prosper
and if a patient have any blister or abscess on the skin then first cut the blister or abscess. inside material is taking by syringe.
Muhammad
in case of fingernail or toenails simply cut a small piece of nail and culture on the appropriate media at a required temperature and time
Muhammad
Again, thanks Mr. Muhammad! I appreciate the help.
prosper
you welcom prosper 😊
Muhammad
what are the media use for skin swab?
Sieh-Mlanwin
blood and macckonkey mostly usededia for skin bacteria
Muhammad
used media*
Muhammad
@ SIEH mostly fungal infection occurs in skin so SDA ( Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) or MEA ( Malt extract agar) are common.
Online
thanks
Sieh-Mlanwin
Microbiologicam source of vitamins
Bachi Reply
what do you mean?
Md
that's example?
Md
hi everyone
Muhammad
such as. c/s media
Md
hmm hlw
Md
just tell me about that ?
Md
where are u from
Muhammad

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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