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Trichinellosis, also called trichinosis , caused by Trichinella spiralis , is contracted by consuming undercooked meat, which releases the larvae and allows them to encyst in muscles. Infection can cause fever, muscle pains, and digestive system problems; severe infections can lead to lack of coordination, breathing and heart problems, and even death. Finally, heartworm in dogs and other animals is caused by the nematode Dirofilaria immitis , which is transmitted by mosquitoes. Symptoms include fatigue and cough; when left untreated, death may result.

Part 2

The physician explains to Sarah’s mother that ringworm can be transferred between people through touch. “It’s common in school children, because they often come in close contact with each other, but anyone can become infected,” he adds. “Because you can transfer it through objects, locker rooms and public pools are also a potential source of infection. It’s very common among wrestlers and athletes in other contact sports.”

Looking very uncomfortable, Sarah says to her mother “I want this worm out of me.”

The doctor laughs and says, “Sarah, you’re in luck because ringworm is just a name; it is not an actual worm. You have nothing wriggling around under your skin.”

“Then what is it?” asks Sarah.

  • What type of pathogen causes ringworm?

Jump to the next Clinical Focus box. Go back to the previous Clinical Focus box.

  • What is the most common nematode infection in the United States?

Platyhelminths (flatworms)

Phylum Platyhelminthes (the platyhelminths) are flatworms . This group includes the flukes, tapeworms, and the turbellarians, which include planarians. The flukes and tapeworms are medically important parasites ( [link] ).

The flukes ( trematodes ) are nonsegmented flatworms that have an oral sucker ( [link] ) (and sometimes a second ventral sucker) and attach to the inner walls of intestines, lungs, large blood vessels, or the liver. Trematodes have complex life cycles, often with multiple hosts. Several important examples are the liver flukes ( Clonorchis and Opisthorchis ), the intestinal fluke ( Fasciolopsis buski ), and the oriental lung fluke ( Paragonimus westermani ). Schistosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease, considered second in the scale of its impact on human populations only to malaria. The parasites Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium , and S. japonicum , which are found in freshwater snails, are responsible for schistosomiasis ( [link] ). Immature forms burrow through the skin into the blood. They migrate to the lungs, then to the liver and, later, other organs. Symptoms include anemia, malnutrition, fever, abdominal pain, fluid buildup, and sometimes death.

a) Class Turbellaria – a photograph of a flat oval-shaped worm labeled Pseudobiceros bedfordi. B) Class Monegena – a micrograph of a rectangular cell with a bulb at one end. Labeled Dactylogyrus sp. C) Class Trematoda – A photograph of a long oval organism labeled Fascioloides magna and two smaller oval organisms labeled Fasciola hepatica. D) Class Cestoda – A photograph of a very long tapeworm labeled Taenia saginata.
Phylum Platyhelminthes is divided into four classes. (a) Class Turbellaria includes the Bedford’s flatworm ( Pseudobiceros bedfordi ), which is about 8–10 cm long. (b) The parasitic class Monogenea includes Dactylogyrus spp. Worms in this genus are commonly called gill flukes. The specimen pictured here is about 0.2 mm long and has two anchors, indicated by arrows, that it uses to latch onto the gills of host fish. (c) The Trematoda class includes the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (right). The F. magna specimen shown here is about 7 cm long. (d) Class Cestoda includes tapeworms such as Taenia saginata , which infects both cattle and humans and can reach lengths of 4–10 meters; the specimen shown here is about 4 meters long. (credit c: modification of work by “Flukeman”/Wikimedia Commons)

Questions & Answers

sahi kon hai bhosri ke
saurabh Reply
define metabolism of carbohydrates with example
Thavasi Reply
what is sterilization a
Sani
the process of keep equipment free from bacteria
shar
is it only bacteria?
Lois
no undesirable fungi and contamination also.
Khushbu
what is streak plate method
Offikwu
what is the biofilm
Dimingu
metabolism is the sum of all the biochemical reaction required for energy generation and use of that energy to synthesize cell materials from small molecules in environment.
Alex
boclenia
Pooja
what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
e.coli
Sukhdeep
granulocytes are type of WBCs which contains granules in the cytoplasm
Owili
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
e coli is the example of prokaryotes
Sukhdeep
archaea too
Noel
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
what is sterilization
Sani
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
define disinfectant
Sani
the process of killing
shar
the process of killing microorganisms
shar
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
I'm new here
kumeiwoe
Welcome Macpue!😊
prosper
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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