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Cytophaga are motile aquatic bacteria that glide. Fusobacteria inhabit the human mouth and may cause severe infectious diseases. The largest genus of the CFB group is Bacteroides , which includes dozens of species that are prevalent inhabitants of the human large intestine, making up about 30% of the entire gut microbiome ( [link] ). One gram of human feces contains up to 100 billion Bacteroides cells. Most Bacteroides are mutualistic. They benefit from nutrients they find in the gut, and humans benefit from their ability to prevent pathogens from colonizing the large intestine. Indeed, when populations of Bacteroides are reduced in the gut—as often occurs when a patient takes antibiotics—the gut becomes a more favorable environment for pathogenic bacteria and fungi, which can cause secondary infections.

A micrograph of many rod shaped cells.
Bacteroides comprise up to 30% of the normal microbiota in the human gut. (credit: NOAA)

Only a few species of Bacteroides are pathogenic. B. melaninogenicus , for example, can cause wound infections in patients with weakened immune systems.

  • Why are Cytophaga , Fusobacterium , and Bacteroides classified together as the CFB group?

Planctomycetes

The Planctomycetes are found in aquatic environments, inhabiting freshwater, saltwater, and brackish water. Planctomycetes are unusual in that they reproduce by budding, meaning that instead of one maternal cell splitting into two equal daughter cells in the process of binary fission, the mother cell forms a bud that detaches from the mother cell and lives as an independent cell. These so-called swarmer cells are motile and not attached to a surface. However, they will soon differentiate into sessile (immobile) cells with an appendage called a holdfast that allows them to attach to surfaces in the water ( [link] ). Only the sessile cells are able to reproduce.

a) A micrograph of an oval cell with long projections attached to a root-shaped structure labeled holdfast. The oval cell is approximately 500 nm in diameter. B) A micrograph of a similar looking cell with a long projection that is not attached to a holdfast.
(a) Sessile Planctomycetes have a holdfast that allows them to adhere to surfaces in aquatic environments. (b) Swarmers are motile and lack a holdfast. (credit: modification of work by American Society for Microbiology)

[link] summarizes the characteristics of some of the most clinically relevant genera of nonproteobacteria.

Nonproteobacteria
Example Genus Microscopic Morphology Unique Characteristics
Bacteroides Gram-negative bacillus Obligate anaerobic bacteria; abundant in the human gastrointestinal tract; usually mutualistic, although some species are opportunistic pathogens
Cytophaga Gram-negative bacillus Motile by gliding; live in soil or water; decompose cellulose; may cause disease in fish
Fusobacterium Gram-negative bacillus with pointed ends Anaerobic; form; biofilms; some species cause disease in humans (periodontitis, ulcers)
Leptospira Spiral-shaped bacterium (spirochetes); gram negative-like (better viewed by darkfield microscopy); very thin Aerobic, abundant in shallow water reservoirs; infect rodents and domestic animals; can be transmitted to humans by infected animals’ urine; may cause severe disease
Sphingobacterium Gram-negative bacillus Oxidase positive; nonmotile; contain high amounts of sphingophospholipids; rarely cause disease in humans
Treponema Gram-negative-like spirochete; very thin; better viewed by darkfield microscopy Motile; do not grow in culture; T. pallidum (subspecies T. pallidum pallidum ) causes syphilis

Questions & Answers

Hi, I'm new here. I'm Bello Abdul Hakeem from Nigeria.
BELLO Reply
welcome on board
Kamaluddeen
Thanks brother I'm an undergraduate. I hope to study for MBBS.
BELLO
pls guys help me out
Linda
what is limitation of plate
Linda
limitation of plate load test . there are some that should be considered while performing load test which are given below, this test is usually performed on relatively similar plate ,usually 1 or 2 square foot area the reason is that the plate of greater are the economically not feasible
yemi
Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity
rashida Reply
Toxicity
Ibrahim
write a short note on Algea
najaatu Reply
green minutes plants organisms that are produced in turf.
Prince
Algae is a kind of a photosynthetic organism, which is usually grown in the moist areas. These are usually the simple plants that grow near to the water bodies. It contains a kind of chlorophyll pigments that act as a primary coloring agent.
Avi
they are eukaryotic and most lived in fresh water. they are photosynthetic that's, they contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplast.
Prince
are bacteria important to man
just Reply
yes, depending on the type of bacteria .eg the normal florals, the latic acid batteries etc are important to man
Lois
I mean latic acid bacterial
Lois
I don't understand this topic
Jane Reply
what topic is that
Rose
sahi kon hai bhosri ke
saurabh Reply
define metabolism of carbohydrates with example
Thavasi Reply
what is sterilization a
Sani
the process of keep equipment free from bacteria
shar
is it only bacteria?
Lois
no undesirable fungi and contamination also.
Khushbu
what is streak plate method
Offikwu
what is the biofilm
Dimingu
metabolism is the sum of all the biochemical reaction required for energy generation and use of that energy to synthesize cell materials from small molecules in environment.
Alex
boclenia
Pooja
what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
e.coli
Sukhdeep
granulocytes are type of WBCs which contains granules in the cytoplasm
Owili
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
e coli is the example of prokaryotes
Sukhdeep
archaea too
Noel
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
what is sterilization
Sani
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
define disinfectant
Sani
the process of killing
shar
the process of killing microorganisms
shar
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
Practice MCQ 3

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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