<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Infectious arthritis

Also called septic arthritis , infectious arthritis can be either an acute or a chronic condition. Infectious arthritis is characterized by inflammation of joint tissues and is most often caused by bacterial pathogens. Most cases of acute infectious arthritis are secondary to bacteremia, with a rapid onset of moderate to severe joint pain and swelling that limits the motion of the affected joint. In adults and young children, the infective pathogen is most often introduced directly through injury, such as a wound or a surgical site, and brought to the joint through the circulatory system. Acute infections may also occur after joint replacement surgery. Acute infectious arthritis often occurs in patients with an immune system impaired by other viral and bacterial infections. S. aureus is the most common cause of acute septic arthritis in the general population of adults and young children. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an important cause of acute infectious arthritis in sexually active individuals.

Chronic infectious arthritis is responsible for 5% of all infectious arthritis cases and is more likely to occur in patients with other illnesses or conditions. Patients at risk include those who have an HIV infection, a bacterial or fungal infection, prosthetic joints, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or who are undergoing immunosuppressive chemotherapy . Onset is often in a single joint; there may be little or no pain, aching pain that may be mild, gradual swelling, mild warmth, and minimal or no redness of the joint area.

Diagnosis of infectious arthritis requires the aspiration of a small quantity of synovial fluid from the afflicted joint. Direct microscopic evaluation, culture, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) analyses of the synovial fluid are used to identify the potential pathogen. Typical treatment includes administration of appropriate antimicrobial drugs based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For nondrug-resistant bacterial strains, β-lactams such as oxacillin and cefazolin are often prescribed for staphylococcal infections. Third-generation cephalosporins (e.g., ceftriaxone ) are used for increasingly prevalent β-lactam-resistant Neisseria infections. Infections by Mycobacterium spp. or fungi are treated with appropriate long-term antimicrobial therapy. Even with treatment, the prognosis is often poor for those infected. About 40% of patients with nongonnococcal infectious arthritis will suffer permanent joint damage and mortality rates range from 5% to 20%. M.E. Shirtliff, Mader JT. “Acute Septic Arthritis.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15 no. 4 (2002):527–544. Mortality rates are higher among the elderly. J.R. Maneiro et al. “Predictors of Treatment Failure and Mortality in Native Septic Arthritis.” Clinical Rheumatology 34, no. 11 (2015):1961–1967.

Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of bone tissues most commonly caused by infection. These infections can either be acute or chronic and can involve a variety of different bacteria. The most common causative agent of osteomyelitis is S. aureus . However, M. tuberculosis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes , S. agalactiae , species in the Enterobacteriaceae , and other microorganisms can also cause osteomyelitis, depending on which bones are involved. In adults, bacteria usually gain direct access to the bone tissues through trauma or a surgical procedure involving prosthetic joints . In children, the bacteria are often introduced from the bloodstream, possibly spreading from focal infections. The long bones, such as the femur, are more commonly affected in children because of the more extensive vascularization of bones in the young. M. Vazquez. “Osteomyelitis in Children.” Current Opinion in Pediatrics 14, no. 1 (2002):112–115.

Questions & Answers

what is mutation
Cynthia Reply
alteration in genetic makeup
UDEME
Hi, I'm new here. I'm Bello Abdul Hakeem from Nigeria.
BELLO Reply
welcome on board
Kamaluddeen
Thanks brother I'm an undergraduate. I hope to study for MBBS.
BELLO
pls guys help me out
Linda
what is limitation of plate
Linda
limitation of plate load test . there are some that should be considered while performing load test which are given below, this test is usually performed on relatively similar plate ,usually 1 or 2 square foot area the reason is that the plate of greater are the economically not feasible
yemi
Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity
rashida Reply
Toxicity
Ibrahim
write a short note on Algea
najaatu Reply
green minutes plants organisms that are produced in turf.
Prince
Algae is a kind of a photosynthetic organism, which is usually grown in the moist areas. These are usually the simple plants that grow near to the water bodies. It contains a kind of chlorophyll pigments that act as a primary coloring agent.
Avi
they are eukaryotic and most lived in fresh water. they are photosynthetic that's, they contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplast.
Prince
are bacteria important to man
just Reply
yes, depending on the type of bacteria .eg the normal florals, the latic acid batteries etc are important to man
Lois
I mean latic acid bacterial
Lois
I don't understand this topic
Jane Reply
what topic is that
Rose
sahi kon hai bhosri ke
saurabh Reply
define metabolism of carbohydrates with example
Thavasi Reply
what is sterilization a
Sani
the process of keep equipment free from bacteria
shar
is it only bacteria?
Lois
no undesirable fungi and contamination also.
Khushbu
what is streak plate method
Offikwu
what is the biofilm
Dimingu
metabolism is the sum of all the biochemical reaction required for energy generation and use of that energy to synthesize cell materials from small molecules in environment.
Alex
boclenia
Pooja
what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
e.coli
Sukhdeep
granulocytes are type of WBCs which contains granules in the cytoplasm
Owili
what is mutation
Cynthia
it is the interchange of genes from their normal sequence
Esther
is an heritable change of the base-pair sequence of genetic material
Elizabeth
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
e coli is the example of prokaryotes
Sukhdeep
archaea too
Noel
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
what is sterilization
Sani
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
define disinfectant
Sani
the process of killing
shar
the process of killing microorganisms
shar

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask