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  • What is the difference between a cell’s genotype and its phenotype?
  • How does DNA fit inside cells?

Noncoding dna

In addition to genes, a genome also contains many regions of noncoding DNA that do not encode proteins or stable RNA products. Noncoding DNA is commonly found in areas prior to the start of coding sequences of genes as well as in intergenic regions (i.e., DNA sequences located between genes) ( [link] ).

A chromosome drawn as an X shape. As the strand unravels we see that it is a long double helix with genes interspersed with noncoding regions.
Chromosomes typically have a significant amount of noncoding DNA, often found in intergenic regions.

Prokaryotes appear to use their genomes very efficiently, with only an average of 12% of the genome being taken up by noncoding sequences. In contrast, noncoding DNA can represent about 98% of the genome in eukaryotes, as seen in humans, but the percentage of noncoding DNA varies between species. R.J. Taft et al. “The Relationship between Non-Protein-Coding DNA and Eukaryotic Complexity.” Bioessays 29 no. 3 (2007):288–299. These noncoding DNA regions were once referred to as “junk DNA”; however, this terminology is no longer widely accepted because scientists have since found roles for some of these regions, many of which contribute to the regulation of transcription or translation through the production of small noncoding RNA molecules, DNA packaging , and chromosomal stability. Although scientists may not fully understand the roles of all noncoding regions of DNA, it is generally believed that they do have purposes within the cell.

  • What is the role of noncoding DNA?

Extrachromosomal dna

Although most DNA is contained within a cell’s chromosomes, many cells have additional molecules of DNA outside the chromosomes, called extrachromosomal DNA , that are also part of its genome. The genomes of eukaryotic cells would also include the chromosomes from any organelles such as mitochondria and/or chloroplasts that these cells maintain ( [link] ). The maintenance of circular chromosomes in these organelles is a vestige of their prokaryotic origins and supports the endosymbiotic theory (see Foundations of Modern Cell Theory ). In some cases, genomes of certain DNA viruses can also be maintained independently in host cells during latent viral infection. In these cases, these viruses are another form of extrachromosomal DNA. For example, the human papillomavirus (HPV) may be maintained in infected cells in this way.

A drawing of a cell. the cell has a large sphere labeled nucleus, smaller ovals labeled mitochondria and small green ovals labeled chloroplasts.
The genome of a eukaryotic cell consists of the chromosome housed in the nucleus, and extrachromosomal DNA found in the mitochondria (all cells) and chloroplasts (plants and algae).

Besides chromosomes, some prokaryotes also have smaller loops of DNA called plasmids that may contain one or a few genes not essential for normal growth ( [link] ). Bacteria can exchange these plasmids with other bacteria in a process known as horizontal gene transfer ( HGT) . The exchange of genetic material on plasmids sometimes provides microbes with new genes beneficial for growth and survival under special conditions. In some cases, genes obtained from plasmids may have clinical implications, encoding virulence factors that give a microbe the ability to cause disease or make a microbe resistant to certain antibiotics. Plasmids are also used heavily in genetic engineering and biotechnology as a way to move genes from one cell to another. The role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer and biotechnology will be discussed further in Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics and Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics .

Questions & Answers

suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
I'm new here
kumeiwoe
Welcome Macpue!😊
prosper
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas
what are the five predisposing factors of opportunistic infections
Asher Reply
1. long term exposure to diseases, that the body immunity weakens.
prosper
2. Nature Of some diseases to weaken body immunity such as, AIDS.
prosper
3. Use of immuno-suppresive drugs.
prosper
anyone... need a hand here 🙋😞
prosper
Low immune is the major cause eg for kaposis sarcoma
Davismith
suitable conditions e.g temp,
Muhammad
what os gnormal flora
kifayat Reply
morphological and genetic classification of bacteria
Potter Reply
what is the morphogical
Bupe
h
Sudhir
morphologycal is defined as relating to the branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms,and with relationship between their structures.
Nadiya
relating to the form or structure of things .
Nadiya
what is the meaning of lessions
oluwa

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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