<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Endothelia

The epithelial cells lining the urogenital tract, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and certain other tissues are known as endothelia . These tightly packed cells provide a particularly effective frontline barrier against invaders. The endothelia of the blood-brain barrier , for example, protect the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The CNS is one of the most sensitive and important areas of the body, as microbial infection of the CNS can quickly lead to serious and often fatal inflammation. The cell junctions in the blood vessels traveling through the CNS are some of the tightest and toughest in the body, preventing any transient microbes in the bloodstream from entering the CNS. This keeps the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord sterile under normal conditions.

  • Describe how the mucociliary escalator functions.
  • Name two places you would find endothelia.

Mechanical defenses

In addition to physical barriers that keep microbes out, the body has a number of mechanical defenses that physically remove pathogens from the body, preventing them from taking up residence. We have already discussed several examples of mechanical defenses, including the shedding of skin cells, the expulsion of mucus via the mucociliary escalator, and the excretion of feces through intestinal peristalsis. Other important examples of mechanical defenses include the flushing action of urine and tears, which both serve to carry microbes away from the body. The flushing action of urine is largely responsible for the normally sterile environment of the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder. Urine passing out of the body washes out transient microorganisms, preventing them from taking up residence. The eyes also have physical barriers and mechanical mechanisms for preventing infections. The eyelashes and eyelids prevent dust and airborne microorganisms from reaching the surface of the eye. Any microbes or debris that make it past these physical barriers may be flushed out by the mechanical action of blinking, which bathes the eye in tears, washing debris away ( [link] ).

A diagram of a person. An arrow from the eye points to a larger image that shows eyelashes, the eyelid and tear ducts. An arrow from the abdominal region shows a larger kidney are ureter. An arrow from the groin region shows a larger urethra.
Tears flush microbes away from the surface of the eye. Urine washes microbes out of the urinary tract as it passes through; as a result, the urinary system is normally sterile.
  • Name two mechanical defenses that protect the eyes.

Microbiome

In various regions of the body, resident microbiota serve as an important first-line defense against invading pathogens. Through their occupation of cellular binding sites and competition for available nutrients, the resident microbiota prevent the critical early steps of pathogen attachment and proliferation required for the establishment of an infection. For example, in the vagina , members of the resident microbiota compete with opportunistic pathogens like the yeast Candida . This competition prevents infections by limiting the availability of nutrients, thus inhibiting the growth of Candida , keeping its population in check. Similar competitions occur between the microbiota and potential pathogens on the skin, in the upper respiratory tract, and in the gastrointestinal tract. As will be discussed later in this chapter, the resident microbiota also contribute to the chemical defenses of the innate nonspecific host defenses.

The importance of the normal microbiota in host defenses is highlighted by the increased susceptibility to infectious diseases when the microbiota is disrupted or eliminated. Treatment with antibiotics can significantly deplete the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, providing an advantage for pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause diarrheal infection. In the case of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile , the infection can be severe and potentially lethal. One strategy for treating C. difficile infections is fecal transplantation , which involves the transfer of fecal material from a donor (screened for potential pathogens) into the intestines of the recipient patient as a method of restoring the normal microbiota and combating C. difficile infections.

[link] provides a summary of the physical defenses discussed in this section.

Physical Defenses of Nonspecific Innate Immunity
Defense Examples Function
Cellular barriers Skin, mucous membranes, endothelial cells Deny entry to pathogens
Mechanical defenses Shedding of skin cells, mucociliary sweeping, peristalsis, flushing action of urine and tears Remove pathogens from potential sites of infection
Microbiome Resident bacteria of the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract Compete with pathogens for cellular binding sites and nutrients
  • List two ways resident microbiota defend against pathogens.

Key concepts and summary

  • Nonspecific innate immunity provides a first line of defense against infection by nonspecifically blocking entry of microbes and targeting them for destruction or removal from the body.
  • The physical defenses of innate immunity include physical barriers, mechanical actions that remove microbes and debris, and the microbiome, which competes with and inhibits the growth of pathogens.
  • The skin, mucous membranes, and endothelia throughout the body serve as physical barriers that prevent microbes from reaching potential sites of infection. Tight cell junctions in these tissues prevent microbes from passing through.
  • Microbes trapped in dead skin cells or mucus are removed from the body by mechanical actions such as shedding of skin cells, mucociliary sweeping, coughing, peristalsis , and flushing of bodily fluids (e.g., urination, tears)
  • The resident microbiota provide a physical defense by occupying available cellular binding sites and competing with pathogens for available nutrients.

Fill in the blank

The muscular contraction of the intestines that results in movement of material through the digestive tract is called ________.

peristalsis

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

______ are the hair-like appendages of cells lining parts of the respiratory tract that sweep debris away from the lungs.

cilia

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Secretions that bathe and moisten the interior of the intestines are produced by _______ cells.

goblet

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Short answer

Differentiate a physical barrier from a mechanical removal mechanism and give an example of each.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Identify some ways that pathogens can breach the physical barriers of the innate immune system.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

What are antibodies?
Happy Reply
they are immune cells that are released by immune system to fight strangers like microbes
Ahmed
a blood protien produce in response to an counteracting a specific antigen
Pooja
Why salmonella typhi is harmful protozoan?
Saily Reply
because make typhoid that is considered as a food born illness
Ahmed
Name any five modes of transmission.
Happy
what are the scientific names and common names of some microbes
Rich Reply
Staphylococcus aureus - staph Streptococcus pyogenes - strep Botulism - Clostridium botulinum Rocky Mountain spotted fever - Rickettsia rickettsii Diphtheria - Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gonorrhea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Tammy
what are the limitations of the Koch's postulate
Naa
how a microorganism growth.
Zubair Reply
Is foetus a parasite to his or her mother? if yes and if no ho
Mashauri Reply
y
Yusri
yes
Yashkin
yes
Zubair
yes it a parasite to the mother because it feeds on the mother for survival
Beatrice
yes
Redwan
no
Elasha
definition of a parasite: an organism that lives in or on an organism of ANOTHER species (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense
Elasha
no because an organism can inky be a parasite if it causes harm to its HOST. And the fetus does not cause harm to its mother under normal conditions
aliyu
yes
Naa
what is biosensor in microbiology
Raja Reply
What are biosensor
Raja
what's are biosensor
Raja
what is microbiology defination
Rinku Reply
microbiology is the study of small or manuit organisms which cannot be seen with our nacked eyes unless with the aid of the microscope
Brandina
is the study of living organisms which are not directly visible to a direct eye but can only be seen under a microscope
Ipa
ok
Ipa
microbiology is the study of living organisms of microscopic size it is also the study of micro organisms with their form structure reproduction psychology metabolism and classification
Priyanka
what are the importances of Microbiology?
Erick Reply
don't know
SINGLE
we obtained the insulin from the bacteria. and some microorganisms are decomposer in ecosystems.
Zubair
nitrogen in the air is fixed into the soil by microbes example is nitrobactor
Matilda
yes
Zubair
how a weak immune region where microorganisms attack easily?
Zubair Reply
with examples differentiate gram positive from gram negative bacteria
Mary Reply
Differentiate gram positive from gram negative
Mary
I have no idea
Zubair
hello
Kuonain
and example of gram negative is E. coli
Pooja
gram positive stain purple when subjected to gram stain whilst gram positive bacterial has thick wall composed of peptidoglycan
Matilda
ok
Zubair
what is a process of gene expression in eukaryotes ?
Nayyab Reply
pls help us with the answer
Abdussalam
spontaneous generation means
Siddhi Reply
hiii
Siddhi
Hello
eman
So, what's next 😂
eman
I have a problem with Micro
eman
I studying things and see question Some thing else
eman
Can u help me, please
eman
What i havta do
eman
firsfall when you studying understand things...
Siddhi
good afternoon dear Friends
yaya
Greeting to everyone in here.
Manka
There is a problem. I need a diagram of a virus with it functions.
Manka
structure of bacterial
Kuyiba
gghhhh
Zubair
group plz i need help in microbio
Kuonain
it really difficult fr me
Kuonain
kashur cha kah
suhail
sorry now I read in class 8th but I can help u
Zubair
Me too. It's very difficult for me
Angela
rod shape
Priyanka
helical
Priyanka
Hello
esike
spherical
Priyanka
peomorphic
Priyanka
I am ryt or not
Priyanka
hi
suhail
hello
DIPTI
Are we together pls what's the topic for the day?
esike
what is innate
Lizzy
innate means natural
Pooja
the genetic makeup of an individual
Matilda
pls i need the common names for the following parasites..ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS,NECATOR AMERICANUS,ASCARIES LUMBRICOIDES,TRICHURIS TRICHIURA,TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS,GIARDIA LAMBLIA,ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA,SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI,SCHISTOSOMAHEMATOBIUM,STROGYLOIDES STERCORALIS,AND TRAPANOSOMA BRUCI GAMBIENSE
timothy
ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS and STROGYLOIDES STERCORALIS have the same common name which is pin worm and thread worm
Chinedu
I didn't find the common names for TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS, GIARDIA LAMBLIA, ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA, TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GAMBIENSE
Chinedu
NECATOR AMERICANUS - New world hookworm ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES- Ascarid TRICHURIS TRICHIURA- Whip worm
Chinedu
Hi guys
Chinedu
Why are myeloblasts not present in the bloodstream?
Chinedu
thank u
Dasaah
is blood from capillary puncture suitable for hormonal assays
NANCY Reply
Direct this question to a hematologist for a better answer please.
LAFIA
In most cases the blood is necessary but it's limited from my own Analysis
Lee
u can do but it depends on your sampling blood its enev or not
Ali
Control indications of cipro, doxicyclin, setracyclin, cloxacyclin, erythromycin
Oslen Reply
oo
babinthe
what is sims position
babinthe Reply
Practice MCQ 3

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask