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Figure a is an electron micrograph showing a virus on the surface of a bacterial cell. The virus has a large head region, a thick neck and thin spider-like legs attached to the bacterium. Figure b is a drawing that labels the outside of the head as the capsid with the viral genome inside. The neck as the sheath and the legs as tail fibers.
A diagram of a large cell. The outside of the cell is a thin line labeled plasma membrane. A long projection outside of the plasma membrane is labeled flagellum. Shorter projections outside the membrane are labeled cilia. Just under the plasma membrane are lines labeled microtubules and microfilaments. The fluid inside the plasma membrane is labeled cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm are small dots labeled ribosomes. These dots are either floating in the cytoplasm or attached to a webbed membrane labeled rough endoplasmic reticulum. Some regions of the webbed membrane do not have dots; these regions of the membrane are called smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Other structures in the cytoplasm include an oval with a webbed line inside of it; this is labeled the mitochondrion. Spheres in the cytoplasm are labeled peroxisome and lysosome. A pancake stack of membranes is labeled golgi complex. Two short tubes are labeled centrosomes. A large sphere in the cell is labeled nucleus. The outer membrane of this sphere is the nuclear envelope. Holes in the nuclear envelope are called nuclear pores. A smaller sphere in the nucleus is labeled nucleolus.
Table of electron microscopes which use electron beams focused with magnets to produce an image. Magnification: 20 – 100,00× or more. Transmission electron microscopes (TEM) use electron means that pass through a specimen to visual small images; useful to observe small, thin specimens such as tissue sections and subcellular structures. The sample image (Ebola virus) shows a tube shaped into a letter d at one end. Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) use electron beams to visualize surfaces; useful to observe the three-dimensional surface details of specimens. The sample image (Campylobactor jejuni) shows thick three-dimensional spirals.
A diagram of a rod-shaped prokaryotic cell. The thick outer layer is called the capsule, inside of that is a thinner cell wall and inside of that is an even thinner plasma membrane. Inside of the plasma membrane is a fluid called the cytoplasm, little dots called ribosomes, small spheres called inclusions, a small loop of DNA called a plasmid, and a large folded loo of DNA called the nucleoid. Long projections start at the plasma membrane and extend out of the capsule; these are called flagella (singular: flagellum). A shorter projection is labeled pilus. And many very short projections are labeled fimbriae.
A drawing of the plasma membrane. The top of the diagram is labeled outside of cell, the bottom is labeled cytoplasm. Separating these two regions is the membrane which is made of mostly a phospholipid bilayer. Each phospholipid is drawn as a sphere with 2 tails. There are two layers of phospholipids making up the bilayer; each phospholipid layer has the sphere towards the outside of the bilayer and the two tails towards the inside of the bilayer. Embedded within the phospholipid bilayer are a variety of large proteins. Glycolipids have long carbohydrate chains (shown as a chain of hexagons) attached to a single phospholipid; the carbohydrates are always on the outside of the membrane. Glycoproteins have a long carbohydrate chain attached to a protein; the carbohydrates are on the outside of the membrane. The cytoskeleton is shown as a thin layer of line just under the inside of the phospholipid bilayer.
Eggs or gravid proplottidis from an infected individual are passed into the environment; this is the diagnostic stage. Cattle (T. saginata) and pigs (T. solium) become infected by ingesting vegetation contaminated by eggs or gravid proglottids. Oncospheres hatch, penetrating intestinal wall and circulate to musculature. The oncospheres develop into cysticerci in muscles and become infective. Humans are infected by ingesting raw or undercooked infected meat. The scolex attaches to intestine and adults are found in the small intestine.

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About the authors

Senior contributing authors

Nina Parker (Content Lead), Shenandoah University
Dr. Nina Parker received her BS and MS from the University of Michigan, and her PhD in Immunology from Ohio University. She joined Shenandoah University's Department of Biology in 1995 and serves as Associate Professor, teaching general microbiology, medical microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology to biology majors and allied health students. Prior to her academic career, Dr. Parker was trained as a Medical Technologist and received ASCP certification, experiences that drive her ongoing passion for training health professionals and those preparing for clinical laboratory work. Her areas of specialization include infectious disease, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and medical microbiology. Dr. Parker is also deeply interested in the history of medicine and science, and pursues information about diseases often associated with regional epidemics in Virginia.

Mark Schneegurt (Lead Writer), Wichita State University
Dr. Mark A. Schneegurt is a Professor of Biological Sciences at Wichita State University and maintains joint appointments in Curriculum and Instruction and Biomedical Engineering. Dr. Schneegurt holds degrees from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Ph.D. from Brown University. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Eli Lilly and has taught and researched at Purdue University and the University of Notre Dame. His research focuses on applied and environmental microbiology, resulting in 70+ scientific publications and 150+ presentations.

Questions & Answers

what is cellular immunity
namugenyi Reply
Cellular Immunity. -Lymphocytes act against target cell. -Acts directly by killing infected cells.
abdinor
What are NK cells
Peter
Natural killer cells
Rahaba
what are Antigen determinant
mary
cellular immunity is the state where the lymphocytes destroy the infected or targeted cell
cynthia
any examples of oedema
cynthia
introduction of microbial diversity-1
Bhavanimangali Reply
List the type of micro organism arround us and how they can be seen and with what kind of instrument
clinton Reply
how is the arrangements of bacteria in bacilli
Vaidah Reply
Provide some examples of bacterial structures that might be used as antibiotic targets and explain why.
Vaidah
Coccobacilli, Club-Shaped bacilli, Bacilli with rounded ends, Fuilform bacilli, Bacilli with ends square.
Enoch
three main antibiotic targets in bacteria: The cell wall or membranes that surrounds the bacterial cell. The machineries that make the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The machinery that produce proteins
Rushikesh
The bacterial cell wall. Protein production. and DNA synthesis. Why, this is because most drugs (antibiotics) affects the cell wall of the bacteria, which makes the bacteria weak or susceptible in human body.
Enoch
UV rays affecting the..
Mali Reply
what is microbiology
Baba Reply
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell which includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and pathogenic protozoa.
Enoch
Microbiology is the branch of Life science which deals with scientific study of many Microorganisms.
Rushikesh
what is types of microbiology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Algology etc
Enoch
Virology, Immunology, Bacteriology, Algology, Mycology, Protoozology etc
Enoch
and what is mycology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Serology, Virology, Microbial Genetics, Parasitology, Bacteriology, Mycology, Molecular, Cell Biology, Agricultural, Water,Soil, Food Industrial ,Pharmaceutical, Applied, Environmental, Clinical, Medical,Marine Microbiology, Microbial Systematics, Etc, are & many types of Microbiology.
Rushikesh
study of fungi is called mycology
Munna
Mycology is the branch of Microbiology which deals with scientific study of Fungi.
Rushikesh
Study of microorganisms,which we can't see with our naked eye is called microbiology
Munna
Mycology is the scientific study of Fungi.
Enoch
virology is the study of viruses
Oppah
what is microbiology? microbiology is the study of small microorganisms that we can not with our naked eyes.
Leticia
what is taxonomical classification of microbiology
Bami
The algae, protozoa, slime moulds, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses ,are taxonomic classification of Microorganisms
Rushikesh
We have Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Viruses.
Enoch
what is the meaning of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Devshree Reply
seven gram positive bacteria
Okocha Reply
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
Physical conditions that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile Reply
Nutritional requirements that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile
Nutritional requirements that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile
what is constant flux but
Jane Reply
Digestion of food is completed in __
Amina Reply
Small Intestine
Enoch
large inteatine
Abdiwali
small intestine
Betelhem
Small intestine
Abdirisaq
small intestine
Marah
small intestine specific in illum
Mariam
difference btwn hausteria and appears
Raviha Reply
numerical and molecular taxanomy
Dhanshri Reply
difference btwn hausteria and appesorium
Raviha
full life cycle of plasmodium parasite
Emmah Reply
what are ways of handling sharps
namugenyi Reply
never recap or bend a sharp objects
benita
what are some medicine in treating patient with meningitis
Freeman

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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