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a) A small diagram of the cell highlighting the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleus is a large sphere in the cell and the endoplasmic reticulum is a series of webbed membranes just outside the nucleus. B) A micrograph showing these same structures. Outside the nuclear envelope are many lines labeled rough endoplasmic reticulum. A smaller set of lines is labeled mitochondrion overlaying part of the RER.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes for the synthesis of membrane proteins (which give it its rough appearance).

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus was discovered within the endomembrane system in 1898 by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi (1843–1926), who developed a novel staining technique that showed stacked membrane structures within the cells of Plasmodium , the causative agent of malaria. The Golgi apparatus is composed of a series of membranous disks called dictyosomes, each having a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together ( [link] ).

Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus modify lipids and proteins transported from the ER to the Golgi, often adding carbohydrate components to them, producing glycolipids, glycoproteins, or proteoglycans. Glycolipids and glycoproteins are often inserted into the plasma membrane and are important for signal recognition by other cells or infectious particles. Different types of cells can be distinguished from one another by the structure and arrangement of the glycolipids and glycoproteins contained in their plasma membranes. These glycolipids and glycoproteins commonly also serve as cell surface receptors.

Transport vesicles leaving the ER fuse with a Golgi apparatus on its receiving, or cis , face. The proteins are processed within the Golgi apparatus, and then additional transport vesicles containing the modified proteins and lipids pinch off from the Golgi apparatus on its outgoing, or trans , face. These outgoing vesicles move to and fuse with the plasma membrane or the membrane of other organelles.

Exocytosis is the process by which secretory vesicles (spherical membranous sacs) release their contents to the cell’s exterior ( [link] ). All cells have constitutive secretory pathways in which secretory vesicles transport soluble proteins that are released from the cell continually (constitutively). Certain specialized cells also have regulated secretory pathways , which are used to store soluble proteins in secretory vesicles. Regulated secretion involves substances that are only released in response to certain events or signals. For example, certain cells of the human immune system (e.g., mast cells) secrete histamine in response to the presence of foreign objects or pathogens in the body. Histamine is a compound that triggers various mechanisms used by the immune system to eliminate pathogens.

A small diagram of the cell outlining the Golgi complex which is a series of stacked membranes in the cell. A more detailed diagram shows the stacked membranes labeled cisternae and the inner regions of the stacks labeled lumen. Small spheres on the top are show transport vesicles from ER fuse with the cis face of the golgi. Small spheres on the bottom show newly formed secretory vesicles emerging from the trans face of the golgi. A micrograph shows the golgi in the cell as a stack of lines forming a semi-circle.
A transmission electron micrograph (left) of a Golgi apparatus in a white blood cell. The illustration (right) shows the cup-shaped, stacked disks and several transport vesicles. The Golgi apparatus modifies lipids and proteins, producing glycolipids and glycoproteins, respectively, which are commonly inserted into the plasma membrane.

Lysosomes

In the 1960s, Belgian scientist Christian de Duve (1917–2013) discovered lysosomes , membrane-bound organelles of the endomembrane system that contain digestive enzymes. Certain types of eukaryotic cells use lysosomes to break down various particles, such as food, damaged organelles or cellular debris, microorganisms, or immune complexes. Compartmentalization of the digestive enzymes within the lysosome allows the cell to efficiently digest matter without harming the cytoplasmic components of the cell.

Questions & Answers

what a tropism in host
Khaliil Reply
HPV vaccine given to school children
Jayani Reply
Differentiation between electron, proton and neutron
Zainab Reply
proton .possitive charge electron . negative charge neutron . having no charge
Kifayat
proton positive charge. electron negative charge. And no charge of the neutron.
Saman
the nucleus is composed of electrons (-) charge and they turn around the Nucleon the Nucleon = neutron(no charge) + proton (+) a neutron can turn to a proton and vice versa (cuz they have the same mass=1)
BENNINI
what are the roles of microorganisms in human being
Buhari Reply
some causes disease, others are not disease causing
Clark
they're necessary in our digestive system+the skin,everywhere actually the number of them in the human body alone is higher(by millions)than the number of humans cells,they're indispensable in the food industry,others are fundamental to make medicines and more,what exactly are you asking about ?
BENNINI
What are the natural occurring elements found in organisms on earth?
Otu Reply
some of the naturally occurring elements found in organisms are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen
Yashi
thanks
Mariam
some of them are carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur
Jamal
what is Zika virus?
Somali Reply
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. 
Cumar
in pregnancy it can cause the unborn child's head to underdevelop so that it does not grow along with the rest of the body
Bethany
intracellular vesicles are found in
Akshay Reply
how do i report widal slide results
Isaac Reply
how food can be used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
Ashi Reply
what is the importance of understanding chemistry in the field of microbiology and food technology?
Charmaine Reply
What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
Abia Reply
main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
Iqra
prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
Yashi
what s anatomy
jane Reply
its mean body structure, function, and systems
gazi
study of internal structure of living things
Falere
anatomy is the study structure of the made human
isir
anotomy is the actual study of body internally and externally Which include how itis made. for what and what is need of this
Iqra
la science anatomie c'est la science qui nous aide à étudier l'homme
Baraka
okay
Baraka
Ancestor are they real
Rapheal Reply
yes of course
David
yes please
Clark
50 50, depending on the accuracy of the clan records.
Vincent
okay
Baraka
Why protist is not a kingdom of Linnaeus 'S taxonomy?
Neha Reply
I dont know
Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
Lad
name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
Pohor
what is microbiology
Baraka
the study of large living organisms
Pratibha
the study of organisms which are micro in range
Vency
what is autoclaving?
Yashi
process for sterilization
Vency
is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
Clark
what is difference between hot air oven and autoclave as they both are used for sterilization ?
Vency
autoclave basically do moist heat sterilization while hot air oven do sterilization by dry heat.....
Yashi
what is the microbe
HUSSAIN
which method out of these two is best?
Yashi
why human have microbe
HUSSAIN
Hi
Sadam
hi to all
Sadam
depends on what to sterilize
Vency
microbes
Md
what is knowledge
HUSSAIN
well idea
Daniel

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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