<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
a) A small diagram of the cell highlighting the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleus is a large sphere in the cell and the endoplasmic reticulum is a series of webbed membranes just outside the nucleus. B) A micrograph showing these same structures. Outside the nuclear envelope are many lines labeled rough endoplasmic reticulum. A smaller set of lines is labeled mitochondrion overlaying part of the RER.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes for the synthesis of membrane proteins (which give it its rough appearance).

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus was discovered within the endomembrane system in 1898 by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi (1843–1926), who developed a novel staining technique that showed stacked membrane structures within the cells of Plasmodium , the causative agent of malaria. The Golgi apparatus is composed of a series of membranous disks called dictyosomes, each having a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together ( [link] ).

Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus modify lipids and proteins transported from the ER to the Golgi, often adding carbohydrate components to them, producing glycolipids, glycoproteins, or proteoglycans. Glycolipids and glycoproteins are often inserted into the plasma membrane and are important for signal recognition by other cells or infectious particles. Different types of cells can be distinguished from one another by the structure and arrangement of the glycolipids and glycoproteins contained in their plasma membranes. These glycolipids and glycoproteins commonly also serve as cell surface receptors.

Transport vesicles leaving the ER fuse with a Golgi apparatus on its receiving, or cis , face. The proteins are processed within the Golgi apparatus, and then additional transport vesicles containing the modified proteins and lipids pinch off from the Golgi apparatus on its outgoing, or trans , face. These outgoing vesicles move to and fuse with the plasma membrane or the membrane of other organelles.

Exocytosis is the process by which secretory vesicles (spherical membranous sacs) release their contents to the cell’s exterior ( [link] ). All cells have constitutive secretory pathways in which secretory vesicles transport soluble proteins that are released from the cell continually (constitutively). Certain specialized cells also have regulated secretory pathways , which are used to store soluble proteins in secretory vesicles. Regulated secretion involves substances that are only released in response to certain events or signals. For example, certain cells of the human immune system (e.g., mast cells) secrete histamine in response to the presence of foreign objects or pathogens in the body. Histamine is a compound that triggers various mechanisms used by the immune system to eliminate pathogens.

A small diagram of the cell outlining the Golgi complex which is a series of stacked membranes in the cell. A more detailed diagram shows the stacked membranes labeled cisternae and the inner regions of the stacks labeled lumen. Small spheres on the top are show transport vesicles from ER fuse with the cis face of the golgi. Small spheres on the bottom show newly formed secretory vesicles emerging from the trans face of the golgi. A micrograph shows the golgi in the cell as a stack of lines forming a semi-circle.
A transmission electron micrograph (left) of a Golgi apparatus in a white blood cell. The illustration (right) shows the cup-shaped, stacked disks and several transport vesicles. The Golgi apparatus modifies lipids and proteins, producing glycolipids and glycoproteins, respectively, which are commonly inserted into the plasma membrane.

Lysosomes

In the 1960s, Belgian scientist Christian de Duve (1917–2013) discovered lysosomes , membrane-bound organelles of the endomembrane system that contain digestive enzymes. Certain types of eukaryotic cells use lysosomes to break down various particles, such as food, damaged organelles or cellular debris, microorganisms, or immune complexes. Compartmentalization of the digestive enzymes within the lysosome allows the cell to efficiently digest matter without harming the cytoplasmic components of the cell.

Questions & Answers

I mportance of microorganisms
azarsh Reply
microbiology is the study of micro organisms those been unicellular multicellular or acelluar
Nwakaego Reply
what is microbiology
Ebuka Reply
why study microbiology
David Reply
to know the cause of certain disease and how to cure them
Racheal
without micro, medicines in term of diagnostic and cure would be far away from realizing its objectives
Louisiaste
It's help to give the best medication.
Olayinka
Unvin Prisca the immune system
Gyabaa Reply
immune system is a complex of organ tissues and specialized cells which identify or kill the pathogens.
Mohammad
Thanks
shamim
explain to me the pathogenesis of plasmodium
Angelo
what is difference between bacillus and ecoil
Rymes Reply
similarities between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell
Ednah Reply
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. ... Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Prokaryotes include two groups: bacteria and another group called archaea.
Priya
thanks
Sarpong
what is different between plasma and serum?
Alif
difference between plasma and serum is that plasma is liquid n serum is fluid
Priya
what is microbiology
Eliham
what is the diseases caused by the microorganisms
Emmanuel
both cells have plasma membrane, which services as a barrier between the inside of the cell and outside. both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes. they receive messages from messanger RNA molecules, telling them what proteins the cell needs.
Abdinur
Thanks
Dominic
Some bacteria infection
Dominic
what is the name given to infection got from the hospital
Mukisa
Nosocomial infection
Gifty
what is the apportion
Riyaaq
what is the main functions of organelles
Ishaq
what is main function of right and left side of the brain.
Theophile
Salifu. microbiology is the study of oganisms that are too small for the naked eyes to see. this include bacteria
Theophile
Cabdi. apportion is to divide or share out
Theophile
yap
bako
what is the parasitic helminths?
bako
what are pathogens
Oluka Reply
any disease causing microorganism that can invade the body and cause harm
famuyiwa
hepatitis b
Oluka
what's da answer
Oluka
any diseases that course harmful to body
Musa
hepatitis is usually implementery of the liver and is commonly course by virus infection
Musa
a type of virus that causes severe illness lasting from two to six weeks it may cause massive lived necrosis and cirrhosis
famuyiwa
hepatitis B are transmitted when in contact with body fluid such as blood,semen,varginal secration that contain the hepatitis b virus
Musa
I understand necrosis,means death of all cell or injury of blood supply, but what is cirrhosis pls
Musa
sorry meant liver cirrhosis
famuyiwa
good evening all
Billy
ok liver damage
Musa
I have a question
Billy
Hey welcome all of you...i think you are discussing about Micro-organisms..what does it Micro?
Gazu
how about, scabies (bacteria) yeah can some one gist me abt it
Billy
sorry what doest it mean Micro organism?
Gazu
microorganism are minute living organisms found almost everywhere. they can be autotrophic heterotrophic or chemotrophic
famuyiwa
Tell me about enzyme kinetics
Jaypal
wowoww thanks a lot farmuyiwa Alice
Gazu
have anyone colony pigmentation of different types of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Edwardsiella, vibros,
Sadiqur
yes dear sadiqur Bacterias are live in everywhere.. .
Gazu
microorganisms are arganism that cannot been seen with 👀 until by the use of microscope
Musa
microorganisms are arganism that cannot been seen with 👀 until by the use of microscope
Musa
yhea organisms are organisms they are naked eye/can't seen by our eyes
Gazu
and scabies are one of the most common skin condition that can course itches and raches.
Musa
and also scabies are not infection, but an infestation
Musa
my Q is what is the contribution of van-leeuwenhoek in field of microbiology
Musa
Antony van leevenhoek is father of microbiology.
Jaypal
Anton Van leewun hook is discovered Microscope it's true or not? who can brief me please
Gazu
micro organisms are organism that cannot be seen with an aided eyes ,but by the use of microscope
Ssmuel
Yes.. He discover first microscope. He take 2 lence at a time and he saw the plant cells... Thus he was called father of microbiology
Jaypal
who examined water from a bathtub and discovered microbes
famuyiwa
for instance any type of Stagnant water is creat there are d/t tupes of small animals.. so those animals are called Micro organism?
Gazu
thank you javpal for Describing.
Gazu
Hi the father of microbiology is Louis Pasteur
bako
Then the father of medical microbiology is Robert Koch
bako
can you please differentiate between vacuoles and inclusion bodies
Noor Reply
vacuoles consists of watery solution called cell sap while bodies are organelles
Prince
5 difference please
Noor
Archaea is an odd type of bacteria that live in extreme environments; high salt, high temperature etc. usually called extremophiles.
Danesia Reply
you know anyone that has delt with enterobacter agglomerans.
Vernon
it is a type of gram negative bacteria and its ubiquitous mostly isolated from plant stuffs and also from faecal material of animals. I heard the name pantoea . it is bacillus in structure.
Sujan
OLUKA MARTIN
Oluka
What are the classification of microorganisms
Portia Reply
Basic classification are eukaryotic and prokaryotic..
micro organisms are classified into three namely: Archaea, eukaryote and prokaryotic organisms
Blandine
Yay that's right
what is archaea
Ateeq
I've got an issue with the message view
Frank Reply
Is there any effective way to learn microbiology.
Frank Reply
I have some basic knowledge of biology. I mean i'm totally beginner in that field.
Frank
Assuming that i'm interested in neuroscience. What is the best way to master that particular subject.
Frank
Hi
Can you wait me just a minute
Iam apologies for guidance you in neuroscience.. I'm not physician.. I'm microbiologist
My pleasure to join to you
Let's begin a conversation
Frank Reply
What would be saying
?
Akram
do you know anything about microbiology
diana
I have so much studying to catch up on🙄
Britnee
any study tips
Britnee
Yas of course
What would you like to know
well i'm studying Pharmacy second year and i just started With Microbiology
diana
if you have any basics to tell us 🤷🏻‍♀️ would be helpful
diana
Yas, first you must know that you will have a very easy lecture..
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology
A simple definition for microbiology
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology.. you must learn the bacteria..its structure.. Classification of bacteria according to shape..
It's so easy

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask