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Learning objectives

  • Describe the lytic and lysogenic life cycles
  • Describe the replication process of animal viruses
  • Describe unique characteristics of retroviruses and latent viruses
  • Discuss human viruses and their virus-host cell interactions
  • Explain the process of transduction
  • Describe the replication process of plant viruses

All viruses depend on cells for reproduction and metabolic processes. By themselves, viruses do not encode for all of the enzymes necessary for viral replication. But within a host cell, a virus can commandeer cellular machinery to produce more viral particles. Bacteriophages replicate only in the cytoplasm, since prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or organelles. In eukaryotic cells, most DNA viruses can replicate inside the nucleus, with an exception observed in the large DNA viruses, such as the poxviruses, that can replicate in the cytoplasm. RNA viruses that infect animal cells often replicate in the cytoplasm.

The life cycle of viruses with prokaryote hosts

The life cycle of bacteriophages has been a good model for understanding how viruses affect the cells they infect, since similar processes have been observed for eukaryotic viruses, which can cause immediate death of the cell or establish a latent or chronic infection. Virulent phages typically lead to the death of the cell through cell lysis. Temperate phages , on the other hand, can become part of a host chromosome and are replicated with the cell genome until such time as they are induced to make newly assembled viruses, or progeny virus es .

The lytic cycle

During the lytic cycle of virulent phage, the bacteriophage takes over the cell, reproduces new phages, and destroys the cell. T-even phage is a good example of a well-characterized class of virulent phages. There are five stages in the bacteriophage lytic cycle (see [link] ). Attachment is the first stage in the infection process in which the phage interacts with specific bacterial surface receptors (e.g., lipopolysaccharides and OmpC protein on host surfaces). Most phages have a narrow host range and may infect one species of bacteria or one strain within a species. This unique recognition can be exploited for targeted treatment of bacterial infection by phage therapy or for phage typing to identify unique bacterial subspecies or strains. The second stage of infection is entry or penetration . This occurs through contraction of the tail sheath, which acts like a hypodermic needle to inject the viral genome through the cell wall and membrane. The phage head and remaining components remain outside the bacteria.

This figure outlines the stages of the lytic cycle. Step 1 is attachment when the phage attaches to the surface of the host. The bacteriophage is shown sitting on the surface of the bacterial host cell. Step 2 is penetration when the viral DNA enters the host cell. The image shows DNA from within the virus being injected into the host DNA. Step 3 is biosynthesis when the phage DNA replicates and the phage proteins are made. The image shows various pieces of virus being built within the cell. Step 4 is maturation when the new phage particles are assembled. This shows the viral components being put together in the cell. The fifth step is lysis when the cell lyses and the newly made phages are released. This shows the cell bursting and built viruses being released.
A virulent phage shows only the lytic cycle pictured here. In the lytic cycle, the phage replicates and lyses the host cell.

The third stage of infection is biosynthesis of new viral components. After entering the host cell, the virus synthesizes virus-encoded endonucleases to degrade the bacterial chromosome. It then hijacks the host cell to replicate, transcribe, and translate the necessary viral components (capsomeres, sheath, base plates, tail fibers, and viral enzymes) for the assembly of new viruses. Polymerase genes are usually expressed early in the cycle, while capsid and tail proteins are expressed later. During the maturation phase, new virions are created. To liberate free phages, the bacterial cell wall is disrupted by phage proteins such as holin or lysozyme. The final stage is release. Mature viruses burst out of the host cell in a process called lysis and the progeny viruses are liberated into the environment to infect new cells.

Questions & Answers

scope of microbiology
Mahira Reply
investigating role of microorganisms in environment, medicine, food,atmosphere studying in depth physiology,diversity and metabolic process played by microorganism in relation to target environment
Muhammad
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Kamlesh
What is the cause of headache
Peter Reply
i don,t know.i want to know clear and proper .
Fazal
my opinion it's sign and symptom for more diseases or disorders.
Abdullahi
which microbals are likely to be find on the skin but they don't cause infection.
osward Reply
what is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic?
Brian Reply
how many types of cell
Brian Reply
Two PLANT AND ANIMAL CELL
Shafi
actually we have two major types eukaryotic and prokaryotic eukaryotic may me unicellular as yeast or multicellular as plant ,animal, algae,fungi prokaryotic as bacteria
Khaled
hi, what are the most important things i should focus on to passed this class
Mulbah
guys I know is out of topic but I really need help
Mulbah
Hi
Brian
hi, any tips on this subject
Mulbah
you only need to focus on your study and you should expand your time of studying if there is any blockage for you
Alieu
Hi dear any one can splain how it is made Collagen peptide
natural
It's made of many bonds and proteins that are used to block
Lee
what is the evolutionary Trent of butterfly
ANTHONY
the history of cell theory.
Usman Reply
what are the principle of gram staining?
Hussaina
gram positive bacteria have matrix 10% and murein 90% which consists of peptidoglycan about four layers (very thick). gram negative bacteria have matrix 90% and murein 10% which consists of peptidoglycan about 2 layers (thin)
Khaled
so in gram positive bacteria : purple stain is trapped make alcohol can't leach it in gram procedure so appear purple (violet) in gram negative bacteria : purple stain is leached by alcohol and red stain of safranin after leaching give red colour appearance to gram negative.
Khaled
Name 4 Afb positive and negative bacteria?
sujay Reply
e coli staphylococcus streptococcus pseudomomas
Matilda
what invention
MALAMI Reply
?
Teressa
learn about micro bacterium tuberculosis
Dian
What are the conventional methods of microorganism detection?
Anna Reply
What are the convectional methods for microorganism detection
Anna
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dennis Reply
Are problèms related for crystal.
Abdullahi
is a calculus formed in the kidney
stephen
yes
tanya
eat light foods
Chandrima
just go tjorough bland diet
Chandrima
what are monomers, and is there a section for bacterial metabolism
SAM Reply
who is Aristotle?
soko Reply
Aristotle is the father of Biology.
Margrete
is a father of western philosophy
Kamaluddeen
father of classification of organisms
Williams
This is one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers
stephen
Sorry Aristotle was father of zoology
Sauri
father of classification of organisms
Williams
father of classification
Joy
Okay father of zoology
Joy
The bacteria that cause plague belong to the genes
Javid Reply
structure and functions of bacterial cell economic environment
Pavi Reply
what is haemaophilus influenzae
GALI Reply
what is the different between eubacteria and archaer bacteria
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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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