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Rna interference technology

In Structure and Function of RNA , we described the function of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. In addition to these types of RNA, cells also produce several types of small noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in the regulation of gene expression. These include antisense RNA molecules, which are complementary to regions of specific mRNA molecules found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells. Non-coding RNA molecules play a major role in RNA interference (RNAi) , a natural regulatory mechanism by which mRNA molecules are prevented from guiding the synthesis of proteins. RNA interference of specific genes results from the base pairing of short, single-stranded antisense RNA molecules to regions within complementary mRNA molecules, preventing protein synthesis. Cells use RNA interference to protect themselves from viral invasion, which may introduce double-stranded RNA molecules as part of the viral replication process ( [link] ).

A eukaryotic cell transcribes a region of DNA into mrNA. Antisense mRNA then binds to the this mRNA to produce a double stranded region. This region is not translated (which means that ribosomes do not bind to the mRNA to produce proteins).
Cells like the eukaryotic cell shown in this diagram commonly make small antisense RNA molecules with sequences complementary to specific mRNA molecules. When an antisense RNA molecule is bound to an mRNA molecule, the mRNA can no longer be used to direct protein synthesis. (credit: modification of work by Robinson R)

Researchers are currently developing techniques to mimic the natural process of RNA interference as a way to treat viral infections in eukaryotic cells. RNA interference technology involves using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) ( [link] ). siRNAs are completely complementary to the mRNA transcript of a specific gene of interest while miRNAs are mostly complementary. These double-stranded RNAs are bound to DICER, an endonuclease that cleaves the RNA into short molecules (approximately 20 nucleotides long). The RNAs are then bound to RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a ribonucleoprotein. The siRNA-RISC complex binds to mRNA and cleaves it. For miRNA, only one of the two strands binds to RISC. The miRNA-RISC complex then binds to mRNA, inhibiting translation. If the miRNA is completely complementary to the target gene, then the mRNA can be cleaved. Taken together, these mechanisms are known as gene silencing .

Double stranded RNA can be produced from DNA in the nucleus. Dicer than cuts this dsRNA into either miRNA or siRNA. miRNA is an imperfect match and only one strand is usually incorporated into RISC. This blocks translation but the mRNA is stable. The RISC is stuck on the target. The siRNA has a perfect match and is incorporated into RISC. This triggers mRNA cleavage.
This diagram illustrates the process of using siRNA or miRNA in a eukaryotic cell to silence genes involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (credit: modification of work by National Center for Biotechnology Information)

Key concepts and summary

  • The science of genomics allows researchers to study organisms on a holistic level and has many applications of medical relevance.
  • Transcriptomics and proteomics allow researchers to compare gene expression patterns between different cells and shows great promise in better understanding global responses to various conditions.
  • The various –omics technologies complement each other and together provide a more complete picture of an organism’s or microbial community’s ( metagenomics ) state.
  • The analysis required for large data sets produced through genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics has led to the emergence of bioinformatics .
  • Reporter genes encoding easily observable characteristics are commonly used to track gene expression patterns of genes of unknown function.
  • The use of recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, allowing for the rapid production of high-quality recombinant DNA pharmaceuticals used to treat a wide variety of human conditions.
  • RNA interference technology has great promise as a method of treating viral infections by silencing the expression of specific genes

Fill in the blank

The application of genomics to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information from an individual’s genomic sequence is called ____________.

pharmacogenomics or toxicogenomics

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A gene whose expression can be easily visualized and monitored is called a ________.

reporter gene

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True/false

RNA interference does not influence the sequence of genomic DNA.

true

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Short answer

If all cellular proteins are encoded by the cell’s genes, what information does proteomics provide that genomics cannot?

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Questions & Answers

similarities between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell
Ednah Reply
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. ... Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Prokaryotes include two groups: bacteria and another group called archaea.
Priya
thanks
Sarpong
what is different between plasma and serum?
Alif
difference between plasma and serum is that plasma is liquid n serum is fluid
Priya
what is microbiology
Eliham
what is the diseases caused by the microorganisms
Emmanuel
both cells have plasma membrane, which services as a barrier between the inside of the cell and outside. both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes. they receive messages from messanger RNA molecules, telling them what proteins the cell needs.
Abdinur
Thanks
Dominic
Some bacteria infection
Dominic
what are pathogens
Oluka Reply
any disease causing microorganism that can invade the body and cause harm
famuyiwa
hepatitis b
Oluka
what's da answer
Oluka
any diseases that course harmful to body
Musa
hepatitis is usually implementery of the liver and is commonly course by virus infection
Musa
a type of virus that causes severe illness lasting from two to six weeks it may cause massive lived necrosis and cirrhosis
famuyiwa
hepatitis B are transmitted when in contact with body fluid such as blood,semen,varginal secration that contain the hepatitis b virus
Musa
I understand necrosis,means death of all cell or injury of blood supply, but what is cirrhosis pls
Musa
sorry meant liver cirrhosis
famuyiwa
good evening all
Billy
ok liver damage
Musa
I have a question
Billy
Hey welcome all of you...i think you are discussing about Micro-organisms..what does it Micro?
Gazu
how about, scabies (bacteria) yeah can some one gist me abt it
Billy
sorry what doest it mean Micro organism?
Gazu
microorganism are minute living organisms found almost everywhere. they can be autotrophic heterotrophic or chemotrophic
famuyiwa
Tell me about enzyme kinetics
Jaypal
wowoww thanks a lot farmuyiwa Alice
Gazu
have anyone colony pigmentation of different types of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Edwardsiella, vibros,
Sadiqur
yes dear sadiqur Bacterias are live in everywhere.. .
Gazu
microorganisms are arganism that cannot been seen with 👀 until by the use of microscope
Musa
microorganisms are arganism that cannot been seen with 👀 until by the use of microscope
Musa
yhea organisms are organisms they are naked eye/can't seen by our eyes
Gazu
and scabies are one of the most common skin condition that can course itches and raches.
Musa
and also scabies are not infection, but an infestation
Musa
my Q is what is the contribution of van-leeuwenhoek in field of microbiology
Musa
Antony van leevenhoek is father of microbiology.
Jaypal
Anton Van leewun hook is discovered Microscope it's true or not? who can brief me please
Gazu
micro organisms are organism that cannot be seen with an aided eyes ,but by the use of microscope
Ssmuel
Yes.. He discover first microscope. He take 2 lence at a time and he saw the plant cells... Thus he was called father of microbiology
Jaypal
who examined water from a bathtub and discovered microbes
famuyiwa
for instance any type of Stagnant water is creat there are d/t tupes of small animals.. so those animals are called Micro organism?
Gazu
thank you javpal for Describing.
Gazu
can you please differentiate between vacuoles and inclusion bodies
Noor Reply
vacuoles consists of watery solution called cell sap while bodies are organelles
Prince
5 difference please
Noor
Archaea is an odd type of bacteria that live in extreme environments; high salt, high temperature etc. usually called extremophiles.
Danesia Reply
you know anyone that has delt with enterobacter agglomerans.
Vernon
it is a type of gram negative bacteria and its ubiquitous mostly isolated from plant stuffs and also from faecal material of animals. I heard the name pantoea . it is bacillus in structure.
Sujan
OLUKA MARTIN
Oluka
What are the classification of microorganisms
Portia Reply
Basic classification are eukaryotic and prokaryotic..
micro organisms are classified into three namely: Archaea, eukaryote and prokaryotic organisms
Blandine
Yay that's right
what is archaea
Ateeq
I've got an issue with the message view
Frank Reply
Is there any effective way to learn microbiology.
Frank Reply
I have some basic knowledge of biology. I mean i'm totally beginner in that field.
Frank
Assuming that i'm interested in neuroscience. What is the best way to master that particular subject.
Frank
Hi
Can you wait me just a minute
Iam apologies for guidance you in neuroscience.. I'm not physician.. I'm microbiologist
My pleasure to join to you
Let's begin a conversation
Frank Reply
What would be saying
?
Akram
do you know anything about microbiology
diana
I have so much studying to catch up on🙄
Britnee
any study tips
Britnee
Yas of course
What would you like to know
well i'm studying Pharmacy second year and i just started With Microbiology
diana
if you have any basics to tell us 🤷🏻‍♀️ would be helpful
diana
Yas, first you must know that you will have a very easy lecture..
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology
A simple definition for microbiology
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology.. you must learn the bacteria..its structure.. Classification of bacteria according to shape..
It's so easy
What triggers the natural killer cells
jenipher Reply
microbiology is the study of science which deals with study of microorganism e.g .virus,bacteria
sufian Reply
microbiology is a branch of science that deals with invisible microorganisms.
Abdinur
microbiology is the branch of science which deals with the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
Andrre
what is microbiology
Safwan Reply
history of microbiology
julie
give all details about cell
Samim Reply
Give me another names for all hypersensitivity
Don Reply
Give me the modern father of microbiology
Don
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
RITU
Louis pasteur is father of modern microbiology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is only the father of microbiology
Sujan
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe the mos. whereas pasteur is the one who described about the vaccine , pasteurization etc.
Sujan
what is the virulence factor
mukhtar Reply
is the abilityof pathogen that cause disease
mary

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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