<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
  • Identify two locations where you would likely find an ICD code.

Part 2

David’s doctor was concerned that his symptoms included prickling and itching at the site of the dog bite; these sensations could be early symptoms of rabies. Several tests are available to diagnose rabies in live patients, but no single antemortem test is adequate. The doctor decided to take samples of David’s blood, saliva, and skin for testing. The skin sample was taken from the nape of the neck (posterior side of the neck near the hairline). It was about 6-mm long and contained at least 10 hair follicles, including the superficial cutaneous nerve. An immunofluorescent staining technique was used on the skin biopsy specimen to detect rabies antibodies in the cutaneous nerves at the base of the hair follicles. A test was also performed on a serum sample from David’s blood to determine whether any antibodies for the rabies virus had been produced.

Meanwhile, the saliva sample was used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, a test that can detect the presence of viral nucleic acid (RNA). The blood tests came back positive for the presence of rabies virus antigen, prompting David’s doctor to prescribe prophylactic treatment. David is given a series of intramuscular injections of human rabies immunoglobulin along with a series of rabies vaccines.

  • Why does the immunofluorescent technique look for rabies antibodies rather than the rabies virus itself?
  • If David has contracted rabies, what is his prognosis?

Jump to the next Clinical Focus box. Go back to the previous Clinical Focus box.

Key concepts and summary

  • Viruses are generally ultramicroscopic, typically from 20 nm to 900 nm in length. Some large viruses have been found.
  • Virions are acellular and consist of a nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, but not both, surrounded by a protein capsid . There may also be a phospholipid membrane surrounding the capsid.
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites.
  • Viruses are known to infect various types of cells found in plants, animals, fungi, protists, bacteria, and archaea. Viruses typically have limited host ranges and infect specific cell types.
  • Viruses may have helical , polyhedral, or complex shapes.
  • Classification of viruses is based on morphology, type of nucleic acid, host range, cell specificity, and enzymes carried within the virion.
  • Like other diseases, viral diseases are classified using ICD codes.

True/false

True or False: Scientists have identified viruses that are able to infect fungal cells.

True

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Fill in the blank

A virus that infects a bacterium is called a/an ___________________.

bacteriophage

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

A/an __________ virus possesses characteristics of both a polyhedral and helical virus.

complex

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

A virus containing only nucleic acid and a capsid is called a/an ___________________ virus or __________________ virus.

naked or nonenveloped

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

The ____________ _____________ on the bacteriophage allow for binding to the bacterial cell.

tail fibers

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Short answer

Discuss the geometric differences among helical, polyhedral, and complex viruses.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What was the meaning of the word “virus” in the 1880s and why was it used to describe the cause of tobacco mosaic disease?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

what's prokaryotic
mohaiminul Reply
A prokaryotic cell is a cell with no membrane bounds organelles
Paul
what are the main effect of parasite?
yunusa Reply
nutritional group of micro organism
Mana Reply
what are the charateristic bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses have in commom
Ami Reply
D N A ar purno rup ki
Ruba Reply
বাংলায় দেখবো DNA এর পূর্রন্যরুপ কি
Ruba
what's microbiology
micah
micro biology is the study of micro organisms,those being unicellular multicellular or a cellular
aniisha
deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code.
aniisha
Does the parasite/parasitology are under microbiology or not
yunusa
Define bacteria
Kainat
Bacteria are a type of biological cell & they constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
raisa
what kind of microbiology
Mira
hello what is main function of T and B cells
Ishaq Reply
T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity while B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies)
Janet
what is hepatitis B
Sunday
it's viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases. the virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids...
Dejene
What are fundamental experiment of microbiology?
Lucky Reply
study of microscopic organisms, unicellular and multicellular
Falere
what are the characteristics of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes
Ami
bacteria-are living organism. contain a peptidoglycan/lipopolysaccharide cell wall. VIRUS-are considered as organic structure which interact with living organism don't have acell wall. they have many differents like bacteria size -large(1000nm) virus size-smaller(20-400nm). bacteria ribosomes presen
Dejene
virus ribosomes absence. bacteria living organism. virus b/n living and non-living things
Dejene
eukaryotic cell has a true membrane bond nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmenalization of function
Dejene
This answer is wrong
Jeffrey Reply
who discovered the growth curve
Joy Reply
Example of coccus bacteria
Nweke Reply
staphylococcus aureus
Elton
MRSA any bew information
Satish
pl. read any new information about MRSA
Satish
Any stru tural finding about novel corona virus
Satish
Examples of spiral bacteria
Nweke Reply
Example of Bacillus bacteria
Nweke
pusals
manikanta
another one
Nweke
what is the desifection decontamination or sterilization
Sahra Reply
Is the removal of dangerous substances or germs from an area, objects or person
Florence
It is the removal of any pathogen, including their spores
Paul
removal of all forms of life including endospore
abdulbasid
I think there is a difference between disinfection and sterilization... we should consider those....
Mosimanegape
disinfection deals with removing harmful microbes at the surface level it doesn't destroy or kill spores ( it uses oxidizing agents ,alcohols , phenolic comp ,aldehydes etc) but sterilization deals with total elimination of all forms of lives.(this uses heat, steam, radiation and chemicals)
Onyinye
disinfecting is preventing microorganisms while sterilization is killing of microorganisms completely
Janet
What is gram positive bacteria?
Rabindra Reply
are those bacteria that have peptidoglycan layer
abdulbasid
are bacterias which solutions change to colours
Dyreen
types of fungi and its characteristics
Dyreen
types of gangrene how it presents?
Dyreen
any one pls
abdulbasid
hi
Buddheshwar
answer the question pls
abdulbasid
don't know
Buddheshwar
yeah
abdulbasid
They are the bacterias that have tick layer of peptidoglycan
Sonimkelechukwu
they're bacteria that have multiple layers of peptidoglycan in their cell wall. These layers make it thick and thus do not allow decolourization of the cell after applying the primary stain and thus retain the purple colour of primary stain after gram staining.
Onyinye
what is virus
HSR Reply
which method is used to measure the concentration of bacterial contamination in processed peanut butter?
Julius Reply
direct method using direct microscopic count
abdulbasid
I will have to know the exact answer
atif
yeah
atif

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask