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Fifth disease (also known as erythema infectiosum ) is another common, highly contagious illness that causes a distinct rash that is critical to diagnosis. Fifth disease is caused by parvovirus B19 , and is transmitted by contact with respiratory secretions from an infected individual. Infection is more common in children than adults. While approximately 20% of individuals will be asymptomatic during infection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Fifth Disease.” http://www.cdc.gov/parvovirusb19/fifth-disease.html. Accessed Sept 14, 2016. others will exhibit cold-like symptoms (headache, fever, and upset stomach) during the early stages when the illness is most infectious. Several days later, a distinct red facial rash appears, often called “slapped cheek” rash ( [link] ). Within a few days, a second rash may appear on the arms, legs, chest, back, or buttocks. The rash may come and go for several weeks, but usually disappears within seven to twenty-one days, gradually becoming lacy in appearance as it recedes.

In children, the disease usually resolves on its own without medical treatment beyond symptom relief as needed. Adults may experience different and possibly more serious symptoms. Many adults with fifth disease do not develop any rash, but may experience joint pain and swelling that lasts several weeks or months. Immunocompromised individuals can develop severe anemia and may need blood transfusions or immune globulin injections. While the rash is the most important component of diagnosis (especially in children), the symptoms of fifth disease are not always consistent. Serological testing can be conducted for confirmation.

a) photo of red patches on an infant’s legs. B) photo of red spots on a child’s trunk.
(a) Roseola, a mild viral infection common in young children, generally begins with symptoms similar to a cold, followed by a pink, patchy rash that starts on the trunk and spreads outward. (b) Fifth disease exhibits similar symptoms in children, except for the distinctive “slapped cheek” rash that originates on the face.
  • Identify at least one similarity and one difference between roseola and fifth disease.

Viral conjunctivitis

Like bacterial conjunctivitis viral infections of the eye can cause inflammation of the conjunctiva and discharge from the eye. However, viral conjunctivitis tends to produce a discharge that is more watery than the thick discharge associated with bacterial conjunctivitis. The infection is contagious and can easily spread from one eye to the other or to other individuals through contact with eye discharge.

Viral conjunctivitis is commonly associated with colds caused by adenoviruses; however, other viruses can also cause conjunctivitis. If the causative agent is uncertain, eye discharge can be tested to aid in diagnosis. Antibiotic treatment of viral conjunctivitis is ineffective, and symptoms usually resolve without treatment within a week or two.

Herpes keratitis

Herpes infections caused by HSV-1 can sometimes spread to the eye from other areas of the body, which may result in keratoconjunctivitis . This condition, generally called herpes keratitis or herpetic keratitis , affects the conjunctiva and cornea, causing irritation, excess tears, and sensitivity to light. Deep lesions in the cornea may eventually form, leading to blindness. Because keratitis can have numerous causes, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis when HSV-1 is suspected; once confirmed, antiviral medications may be prescribed.

Viral infections of the skin and eyes

A number of viruses can cause infections via direct contact with skin and eyes, causing signs and symptoms ranging from rashes and lesions to warts and conjunctivitis. All of these viral diseases are contagious, and while some are more common in children (fifth disease and roseola), others are prevalent in people of all ages (oral herpes, viral conjunctivitis, papillomas). In general, the best means of prevention is avoiding contact with infected individuals. Treatment may require antiviral medications; however, several of these conditions are mild and typically resolve without treatment. [link] summarizes the characteristics of some common viral infections of the skin and eyes.

Table titled: Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes. Columns: Disease, Pathogen, Signs and Symptoms, Transmission, Antimicrobial Drugs. Fifth disease, Parvovirus B19, May have initial cold-like symptoms; “slapped cheek” rash, Highly contagious via respiratory secretions of infected individuals, None. Herpes keratitis, Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), Inflammation of conjunctiva and cornea; irritation, excess tears, sensitivity to light; lesions in cornea leading to blindness, Direct eye contact with discharge from herpes lesions elsewhere in the body or from another infected individual, Acyclovir, ganciclovir, famiclovir, valacyclovir. Oral herpes Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), May cause initial systemic symptoms; cold sores, Highly contagious via direct contact with infected individuals, Acyclovir, penciclovir, famiclovir, valacyclovir. Papillomas, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Common warts, plantar warts, flat warts, filiform warts, and others, Contact with infected individuals, Topical salicylic acid, cantharidin. Roseola (roseola infantum, exanthem subitum), Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), Initial cold-like symptoms with high fever, followed by a macular rash three to five days later, Spread by viral and respiratory secretions of infected individuals, Typically none; ganciclovir for immunocompromised patients. Viral conjunctivitis, Adenoviruses and others, Inflammation of the conjunctiva; watery, nonpurulent discharge, Associated with common cold; contagious via contact with eye discharge, None.

Key concepts and summary

  • Papillomas (warts) are caused by human papillomaviruses.
  • Herpes simplex virus (especially HSV-1) mainly causes oral herpes , but lesions can appear on other areas of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Roseola and fifth disease are common viral illnesses that cause skin rashes; roseola is caused by HHV-6 and HHV-7 while fifth disease is caused by parvovirus 19.
  • Viral conjunctivitis is often caused by adenoviruses and may be associated with the common cold. Herpes keratitis is caused by herpesviruses that spread to the eye.

Fill in the blank

Human herpesvirus 6 is the causative agent of ________.

roseola

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Short answer

Compare and contrast bacterial and viral conjunctivitis.

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Questions & Answers

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What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
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main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
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prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
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study of internal structure of living things
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anatomy is the study structure of the made human
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Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
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name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
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the study of large living organisms
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the study of organisms which are micro in range
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process for sterilization
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is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
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Types of micro organisms
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Who discovered plant and animal cell
Jennifer
Robert Hooke
Martha
Father of microbiology
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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
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icrobiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses
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to differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacty
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medical microbiology means study of microorganisms which are beneficial or harmful for the body. mostly which are studied under microscope by structure and shape appearance. e.g bacteria, viruses, bacteriophage, fungus hyphae and some blood and other body fluids parasites e.g plasmodium etc.
Rana
arif bhai gram staining in which we are given different dyes to the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasm and nucleus.e.g giemsa stain
Rana
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Omar baba crystal violet iodine 70% alcohol fuchicine or safranine after every step washing must be done
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*Safranin
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difference between epidermophyton trichophyton and microsporum
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Iqra
epidermophyton type of fungi causes superficial and cutaneous mycoses trichophyton is also fungi type including parasitic varieties causes dermatophytosis microsporum is also type of fungi causes dermatophytosis.
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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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