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Other members of the normal microbiota can also cause opportunistic infections under certain conditions. This often occurs when microbes that reside harmlessly in one body location end up in a different body system, where they cause disease. For example, E. coli normally found in the large intestine can cause a urinary tract infection if it enters the bladder. This is the leading cause of urinary tract infections among women.

Members of the normal microbiota may also cause disease when a shift in the environment of the body leads to overgrowth of a particular microorganism. For example, the yeast Candida is part of the normal microbiota of the skin, mouth, intestine, and vagina, but its population is kept in check by other organisms of the microbiota. If an individual is taking antibacterial medications, however, bacteria that would normally inhibit the growth of Candida can be killed off, leading to a sudden growth in the population of Candida , which is not affected by antibacterial medications because it is a fungus. An overgrowth of Candida can manifest as oral thrush (growth on mouth, throat, and tongue), a vaginal yeast infection , or cutaneous candidiasis . Other scenarios can also provide opportunities for Candida infections. Untreated diabetes can result in a high concentration of glucose in the saliva, which provides an optimal environment for the growth of Candida, resulting in thrush. Immunodeficiencies such as those seen in patients with HIV, AIDS, and cancer also lead to higher incidence of thrush. Vaginal yeast infections can result from decreases in estrogen levels during the menstruation or menopause. The amount of glycogen available to lactobacilli in the vagina is controlled by levels of estrogen; when estrogen levels are low, lactobacilli produce less lactic acid. The resultant increase in vaginal pH allows overgrowth of Candida in the vagina.

  • Explain the difference between a primary pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen.
  • Describe some conditions under which an opportunistic infection can occur.

Stages of pathogenesis

To cause disease, a pathogen must successfully achieve four steps or stages of pathogenesis : exposure (contact), adhesion (colonization), invasion, and infection. The pathogen must be able to gain entry to the host, travel to the location where it can establish an infection, evade or overcome the host’s immune response, and cause damage (i.e., disease) to the host. In many cases, the cycle is completed when the pathogen exits the host and is transmitted to a new host.


An encounter with a potential pathogen is known as exposure or contact . The food we eat and the objects we handle are all ways that we can come into contact with potential pathogens. Yet, not all contacts result in infection and disease. For a pathogen to cause disease, it needs to be able to gain access into host tissue. An anatomic site through which pathogens can pass into host tissue is called a portal of entry . These are locations where the host cells are in direct contact with the external environment. Major portals of entry are identified in [link] and include the skin, mucous membranes, and parenteral routes.

Questions & Answers

what are the two acids the skin produce
Caro Reply
alpha hydroxy and beta hydroxy there are water soluble compounds and often use as exfoliant
what must a positive strand of an RNA virus do first
Kelsi-Ann Reply
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense single stranded RNA as its genetic material. Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA.
 The positive-sense viral RNA genome can serve as messenger RNA and can be translated into protein in the host cell. Positive-sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification. Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens
such as the hepaci virus C, West nail virus, dengue virus, SARS and MERS coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV-2 as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold.
Why strong acid and alkline are not harmful to mycobacterium bacili?
What are the types of bacteria
John Reply
Do you mean the shapes or the the two different types of bacteria? Bacteria are often described in terms of their general shape. Common shapes include spherical (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), or curved (spirillum, spirochete, or vibrio) The two different types are gram negative or gram positive.
what other characteristics of prokaryotes a bacteria don't have?
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms belonging to the domains Bacteria and Archaea. Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, have no nucelus, and lack organelles. All prokaryotic cells are encased by a cell wall. Many also have a capsule or slime layer made of polysaccharide.
gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria
Most bacteria can be broadly classified as Gram positive or Gram negative. Gram positive bacteria have cell walls composed of thick layers of peptidoglycan.cells stain purple when subjected to a Gram stain procedure. Gram negative bacteria have cell walls with a thin layer of peptidoglycan.
all of you are amazing microbiologists
thanks demisew....
guys what are the two acids the skin produce
what are the bacteria's involved in the decaying of food
Enow Reply
Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus, are capable of causing spoilage.
Corona has a gray and black cell structure ....if yes explain..if no explain
Joshua Reply
multiple questions and answers in microbiology and bio chemistry
Lakshmi Reply
is the study of a bacteria and other organisms
yes..this book is about bacteria & others organisms
biochemistry is the branch of science that dealing of chemical compounds reactions and other processes
have you any question?
yess, Why scientists not search coronavirus vaccines in short time.
they are on
what are the symptoms for tuberculosis
Most people infected with the bacteria that cause tuberculosis don't have symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they usually include a cough (sometimes blood-tinged), weight loss, night sweats and fever.
symptoms tuberculosis. Fever Chills Night sweats Cough Loss of appetite Weight loss Blood in the sputum (phlegm) Loss of energy
can corona virus transmitted from mother to her child through placenta ?
no,but it can through trait
mutation occur in the genome of corona virus. thats why the corona vaccines forming just difficult
yes coz it's spread through the soft body parts more so the openings in our bodies
what is relation between fear (from covid 19 ) and immune sys ?
because it damages the immune system by reduction the action of WBC
reducing pls
how is it possible for a woman to be pregnant and still See's her period
Prince Reply
we term it as discharge
what is immunity
evans Reply
What is a varuis
A submicroscopic infectious organism, now understood to be a non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. It requires a living cell to replicate, and often causes disease
A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate
A virus is a microorganism which invade our bodies causing diseases due to eliciting immune responses by the body against it, can replicate using our genome inducing production of proteins helping them to establish new life inside our bodies.
What are the important of capsules
Marriam Reply
what are the roles of male sex hormones
Testosterone is the principal sex hormone inmales and is produced in the testes (testicles). Dihydrotestosterone is a hormonein which the double bond of testosterone has been reduced by enzyrne reactions in the body. ... The testes perform two functions: They produce sperm, and they producetestoster
Capsules in bacteria protect them from phagocytosis of eukaryotic organisms. This is what makes them virulent and harmful without antibodies.
any one told me definition of amoebic dysentery & amoebic liver dysentery?
Amoebiasis, also known amoebic dysentery, is an infection caused by any of the amobae of the Entamoeba group. Symptoms are most common during infection by Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebiasis can be present with no, mild, or severe symptoms. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea....
u welcome mira
people explain for me this words in public health.tb prevention 1:promotive 2:preventive 3:curative 4:rehabilitative
Capsules function similarly to endospores they provide an extra layer of protection especially in acidic or basic environments. It is also a thicker membrane which can change the osmosis process and can provides resistance to antibotics depending if it is gram negative or positive.
...As some antibotics focus on breaking down the cell wall and is not able to.
what are the clinical classification of amoxicillin?
how does a autoimmune diso ders develop
Oliver Reply
simply autoimmune disease is not completely understood. There are many variations from genetically inherited to acquired by viruses like HIV. Genetically they may not be prominent until an unknown point in one's life. I am far from an expert, I am just reciting what I have learned. Take rheumatoid
what is anatomy
Mohamed Reply
Anatomy is the study of parts of the human body
the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.
Describe the halden effect
The Haldane effect is a property of haemoglobin first described by John ScottHaldane. Oxygenation of blood in the lungs displaces carbon dioxide from hemoglobin which increases the removal of carbon dioxide. This property is the Haldane effect.
Difference between chief cells and parietal cells in the stomach
 Parietal cells are the epithelialcells that secrete HCl and intrinsic factor. They are located in the gastric glands found in lining of fundus and stomach. The gastric chief cells , are cells in the stomach that release pepsinogen and chymosin.
is the study of structure and organs located in human life
listen to Matilda
essay on microbiology and how it contribute to the pharmacy assistant programme
Tagedevi Reply
I want to know how it contribute to the pharmacy assistant programme
Contribute how? If you want to contribute to pharmaceutical stuff you should look for websites with blogs that relate to your interests.
hello i want to know how it contribute to microbiology programs
Microbiology is the study of bacteria and and organisms such as viruses, fungi, and mold. How does this apply to medicine? It applies to medicine or pharmacology because when you get sick you are infected by a pathogen and understanding how these organisms interact with each other helps you to....
develop medicine. A lot of bacteria infections can be cured with various medicines but not all medicines work equally. It depends if your sickness is based on gram positve or negative bacteria, if its s mold or fungus or a virius. Each medicine targets a certain one.
If you need any ideas I recommend looking up Louis Pastar who used microbiology to invent a lot of medicines and contributed greatly to microbiology and pharmaceutical.
what is a bacterial
Eric Reply
Bacteria is a microscopic organism belonging to the kingdom prokaryotic
what is prokaryotic
if you are here, read this free book, it is mostly correct, there are a few pictures that should be corrected
A prokaryotes does not have lipid- bilayer bound organelles, they can reproduce by binary fission, they have a DNA region, most have a cell well, contains a plasmid, 70s ribosomes, high mutation rate due lack of certain DNA replication enzymes.
HIV And Coronavírus, what is the difference ? Both are Retrovirus, please , I want to know. Thank you.
Cl Reply
does it mean Corona is incurable just like the HIV for the it to be retroviral too?
The reason researchers are looking to these medicines is that the new coronavirus—like HIV, Ebola, and hepatitis C—are all RNA viruses.but covid-19 is to detect human and animal virus. hiv is only human virus do not detecte animals
***niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/coronaviruses start here, since this is what is new, then recap yourself on autoimmune diseases that are not recoverable
what happen when virus escape the host
A virus must attach to a living cell, be taken inside, manufacture its proteins and copy its genome, and find a way to escape the cell so that the virus can infect other cells. Viruses can infect only certain species of hosts and only certain cells within that host.
what is the difference between capsule and glycocylx in relation to prokaryotes
Felix Reply
However glycocalyx exists in bacteria as either a capsule or a slime layer. Thedifference between a capsule and a slime layer is that in a capsule polysaccharides are firmly attached to the cell wall, while in aslime layer, the glycoproteins are loosely attached to the cell wall.
Glycocalyx is composed of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and other glycoproteins bearing acidic oligosaccharides and terminal sialic acids. Capsule is Composed of polysaccharide (i.e. poly: many, saccharide: sugar). Exception: The capsule of Bacillus anthracis is composed of polymerized D-glutami
Capsule is located immediately exterior to the murein (peptidoglycan) layer  of gram-positive bacteria and the outer membrane (Lipopolysaccharide layer) of gram-negative bacteria The glycocalyx, which is located on the apical surface of endothelial cells, is composed of a negatively charged network
Meu I watch at microscopic HIV
assarra is paying attention. look into taking a course is you want to truly understand what is known now

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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