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  • Name three arboviral diseases and explain why they are so named.
  • What is the best method for controlling outbreaks of arboviral diseases?

Ebola virus disease

The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious disease caused by species of Ebolavirus , a BSL-4 filovirus ( [link] ). Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with body fluids (e.g., blood, saliva, sweat, urine, feces, or vomit), and indirect contact by contaminated fomites. Infected patients can easily transmit Ebola virus to others if appropriate containment and use of personal protective equipment is not available or used. Handling and working with patients with EVD is extremely hazardous to the general population and health-care workers. In almost every EVD outbreak there have been Ebola infections among health-care workers. This ease of Ebola virus transmission was recently demonstrated in the Ebola epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in 2014, in which more than 28,000 people in 10 countries were infected and more than 11,000 died. HealthMap. “2014 Ebola Outbreaks.” http://www.healthmap.org/ebola/#timeline. Accessed July 28, 2016.

After infection, the initial symptoms of Ebola are unremarkable: fever, severe headache, myalgia, cough, chest pain, and pharyngitis. As the disease progresses, patients experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Hemorrhaging begins after about 3 days, with bleeding occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and many other sites. This often leads to delirium, stupor, and coma, accompanied by shock, multiple organ failure, and death. The mortality rates of EVD often range from 50% to 90%.

The initial diagnosis of Ebola is difficult because the early symptoms are so similar to those of many other illnesses. It is possible to directly detect the virus from patient samples within a few days after symptoms begin, using antigen-capture ELISA, immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA, PCR, and virus isolation. There are currently no effective, approved treatments for Ebola other than supportive care and proper isolation techniques to contain its spread.

Micrograph of a straight cell with a straight cell that forms a loop on one end.
An Ebola virus particle viewed with electron microscopy. These filamentous viruses often exhibit looped or hooked ends. (credit: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • How is Ebola transmitted?

Hantavirus

The genus Hantavirus consists of at least four serogroups with nine viruses causing two major clinical (sometimes overlapping) syndromes: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in other continents. Hantaviruses are found throughout the world in wild rodents that shed the virus in their urine and feces. Transmission occurs between rodents and to humans through inhalation of aerosols of the rodent urine and feces. Hantaviruses associated with outbreaks in the US and Canada are transmitted by the deer mouse, white-footed mouse, or cotton rat.

HPS begins as a nonspecific flu-like illness with headache, fever, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Patients rapidly develop pulmonary edema and hypotension resulting in pneumonia, shock, and death, with a mortality rate of up to 50%. World Health Organization. “Hantavirus Diseases.” 2016. http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/hantavirus/en/. Accessed July 28, 2016. This virus can also cause HFRS, which has not been reported in the US. The initial symptoms of this condition include high fever, headache, chills, nausea, inflammation or redness of the eyes, or a rash. Later symptoms are hemorrhaging, hypotension, kidney failure, shock, and death. The mortality rate of HFRS can be as high as 15%. ibid.

Questions & Answers

microbial genetics mcqs
kajal Reply
hii
Happy
what is the importance of learning microbiology in nursing?
Grace Reply
привет
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it's about child-care?
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the way of common children disease? hmm 🤔🤔
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how do you mean child care?
Grace
Was ist die Wichtigkeit beim Lernen von Mikrtobiologie in der Pflege? Es ist notwendig dass die Schwestern allgemein und auch die Kinderschwestern eine Ausbildung in der Mikrobiologie erfahren. Sie sind in ihrem Beruf gefo
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you need to know the truth about diseases. the microbes are have immunity to some pharmacy.
__
is base pairing rule states that adenine pair with thymine cytosine pair with guannie what will be the complementry strand to acggt
KooL Reply
tgcca
Tanaya
yes
Swetha
introduction to microbiology
Shweta Reply
Study the life of microorganisms present in the environment their survivals etc..
ayesha
Microscopic organisms, commonly known as microorganisms or microbes, are found all around us and even inside our bodies. The category 'Microbes' includes a massive range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, archaea and protozoa.
Amre
fermented foods likely benefited ancestors to preserve foods and make other foods like milk, cheese, and bread using microbes.
Zinnia Reply
the evidence that I would support the statement regarding ancient people ideas that disease was transmitted by things they could not see is by the discoveries under a microscope. Many microbiologists have discovered certain diseases caused by microbes.
Zinnia
plz give the information about glyoxylate cycle
kamini Reply
what type of information?
Sapiens
I need medical microbiology mcqs books for Mbbs
Kisota
for pakistani mbbs or other?
Sapiens
what is microbial soup?
Osborn Reply
😃😂funny question isn't it?!!! sorry for inconvenience 😊
ayesha
most bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans are classified in terms if their preferable ph as
Beesan Reply
what is micro
Kabul Reply
extremely small in size
Swetha
almost invisible to the naked eye
Peter
thanks
Sadiq
uwc
Peter
invisible sized objects
Sivasri
invisible sized object or specimens.which is used to see in only the microscope that specimens or objective called the micro
Sivasri
small organism that can be seen by use of Microbes
Manyang
why do you need to study microorganisms
Sala
what is microbiology?
Green Reply
microbiology is a branch of biology .it deals with the study of microorganisms life cycle , uses, disadvantages,and it impact in any other fields .which is used to view in microscope .
Sivasri
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology and parasitology. 
Raj
In short , it is the study of micro organisms and types , characteristics.
Kaviya
can you explain the structure of rna in detail
Dhanalakshmi Reply
RNA is of many types....like mRNA,tRNA,rRNA,snRNA,guideRNA..etc .
Swetha
but generally RNA is single stranded
Swetha
It contains adenine guanine cytosine , instead of thymine it contains uracil.
Swetha
ribonucleic acid present in RNA.. where as in DNA it is deoxyribonucleic acid...and ribonucleotide is present in RNA
Swetha
RNA is a blue print of DNA. it has the information from DNA....and we can predict the base panirs in DNA if we have the RNA....copy of that DNA
Swetha
can either have positive or negative polarity
Ernestine
Diatoms need..... With the help of which they can construct their beautiful cell wall
Prathmesh Reply
Microbial growth curve shows a.... Curve.
Shambhuraj Reply
diminishing curve
Oluwapamilerin
It represents the decreasing growth of an organism.
Swetha
what is meant by reverse isolation in tuberculosis treatment?
Swetha Reply
why do we study microbiology
HABIBA Reply
Microbiology is the way of gaining knowledge about those organisms which are surround us but we can't see them with our naked eye,such organisms called microorganisms..We can see them only under microscope.
ayesha
from our birth to death microorganisms are with us in the environment as well as on our body which are called Microflora.
ayesha
Microfloras are non pathogenic
ayesha

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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