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A cell contains host chromosome (large loop of DNA), F plasmid (small loop of DNA) and a pilus (projection out of the cell). The F plasmid is inserted into the host chromosome to become Hfr male (donor). When the plasmid is removed from the host chromosome, genes from the chromosome (such as lac) may move from the chromosome to the plasmid. In this case the cell becomes an F’ cell.
(a) The F plasmid can occasionally integrate into the bacterial chromosome, producing an Hfr cell. (b) Imprecise excision of the F plasmid from the chromosome of an Hfr cell may lead to the production of an F’ plasmid that carries chromosomal DNA adjacent to the integration site. This F’ plasmid can be transferred to an F cell by conjugation.
a) Diagram showing one cell with multiple genes on its chromosome as well as an integrated F plasmid. This cell begins copying and transferring its entire genome but conjugation ends before the entire chromosome is transferred. B) A sample plasmid showing the variety of genes on the plasmid. Some sample genes include: argG, pabB, metA, argR, polA, and oriC. Numbers in the center of the plasmid indicate the location of genes; these numbers show a plasmid of 1000bp total.
(a) An Hfr cell may attempt to transfer the entire bacterial chromosome to an F cell, treating the chromosome like an extremely large F plasmid. However, contact between cells during conjugation is temporary. Chromosomal genes closest to the integration site (gene 1) that are first displaced during rolling circle replication will be transferred more quickly than genes far away from the integration site (gene 4). Hence, they are more likely to be recombined into the recipient F cell’s chromosome. (b) The time it takes for a gene to be transferred, as detected by recombination into the F cell’s chromosome, can be used to generate a map of the bacterial genome, such as this genomic map of E. coli . Note that it takes approximately 100 minutes for the entire genome (4.6 Mbp) of an Hfr strain of E. coli to be transferred by conjugation.

Consequences and applications of conjugation

Plasmids are an important type of extrachromosomal DNA element in bacteria and, in those cells that harbor them, are considered to be part of the bacterial genome. From a clinical perspective, plasmid s often code for genes involved in virulence. For example, genes encoding proteins that make a bacterial cell resistant to a particular antibiotic are encoded on R plasmids . R plasmids, in addition to their genes for antimicrobial resistance, contain genes that control conjugation and transfer of the plasmid. R plasmids are able to transfer between cells of the same species and between cells of different species. Single R plasmids commonly contain multiple genes conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics.

Genes required for the production of various toxins and molecules important for colonization during infection may also be found encoded on plasmids. For example, verotoxin-producing strains of E. coli ( VTEC ) appear to have acquired the genes encoding the Shiga toxin from its gram-negative relative Shigella dysenteriae through the acquisition of a large plasmid encoding this toxin. VTEC causes severe diarrheal disease that may result in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which may be lead to kidney failure and death.

In nonclinical settings, bacterial genes that encode metabolic enzymes needed to degrade specialized atypical compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also frequently encoded on plasmids. Additionally, certain plasmids have the ability to move from bacterial cells to other cell types, like those of plants and animals, through mechanisms distinct from conjugation. Such mechanisms and their use in genetic engineering are covered in Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics .

Questions & Answers

what is mutation
Cynthia Reply
Hi, I'm new here. I'm Bello Abdul Hakeem from Nigeria.
welcome on board
Thanks brother I'm an undergraduate. I hope to study for MBBS.
pls guys help me out
what is limitation of plate
limitation of plate load test . there are some that should be considered while performing load test which are given below, this test is usually performed on relatively similar plate ,usually 1 or 2 square foot area the reason is that the plate of greater are the economically not feasible
Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity
rashida Reply
write a short note on Algea
najaatu Reply
green minutes plants organisms that are produced in turf.
Algae is a kind of a photosynthetic organism, which is usually grown in the moist areas. These are usually the simple plants that grow near to the water bodies. It contains a kind of chlorophyll pigments that act as a primary coloring agent.
they are eukaryotic and most lived in fresh water. they are photosynthetic that's, they contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplast.
are bacteria important to man
just Reply
yes, depending on the type of bacteria .eg the normal florals, the latic acid batteries etc are important to man
I mean latic acid bacterial
I don't understand this topic
Jane Reply
what topic is that
sahi kon hai bhosri ke
saurabh Reply
define metabolism of carbohydrates with example
Thavasi Reply
what is sterilization a
the process of keep equipment free from bacteria
is it only bacteria?
no undesirable fungi and contamination also.
what is streak plate method
what is the biofilm
metabolism is the sum of all the biochemical reaction required for energy generation and use of that energy to synthesize cell materials from small molecules in environment.
what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
granulocytes are type of WBCs which contains granules in the cytoplasm
what is mutation
it is the interchange of genes from their normal sequence
is an heritable change of the base-pair sequence of genetic material
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
uv radiation and lighting
e coli is the example of prokaryotes
archaea too
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
control of microorganisms
what is sterilization
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
define disinfectant
the process of killing
the process of killing microorganisms
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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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