<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Antibiotics can be used to treat the infection. However, unique to H. pylori, the recommendation from the US Food and Drug Administration is to use a triple therapy. The current protocols are 10 days of treatment with omeprazole , amoxicillin , and clarithromycin (OAC); 14 days of treatment with bismuth subsalicylate , metronidazole , and tetracycline (BMT); or 10 or 14 days of treatment with lansoprazole , amoxicillin , and clarithromycin (LAC). Omeprazole, bismuth subsalicylate, and lansoprazole are not antibiotics but are instead used to decrease acid levels because H. pylori prefers acidic environments.

Although treatment is often valuable, there are also risks to H. pylori eradication. Infection with H. pylori may actually protect against some cancers, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Martin J. Blaser. “Disappearing Microbiota: Helicobacter pylori Protection against Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.” Cancer Prevention Research 1 (2008) 5: pp. 308–311. http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/1/5/308.full.pdf+html. Ivan F. N. Hung and Benjamin C. Y. Wong. “Assessing the Risks and Benefits of Treating Helicobacter pylori Infection.” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 2 (2009) 3: pp, 141–147. doi: 10.1177/1756283X08100279.

  • How does H. pylori cause peptic ulcers?

Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis

Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis is a generally mild foodborne disease that is associated with undercooked meats and other foods. C. perfringens is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming anaerobic bacterium that is tolerant of high and low temperatures. At high temperatures, the bacteria can form endospores that will germinate rapidly in foods or within the intestine. Food poisoning by type A strains is common. This strain always produces an enterotoxin , sometimes also present in other strains, that causes the clinical symptoms of cramps and diarrhea. A more severe form of the illness, called pig-bel or enteritis necroticans , causes hemorrhaging, pain, vomiting, and bloating. Gangrene of the intestines may result. This form has a high mortality rate but is rare in the United States.

Diagnosis involves detecting the C. perfringens toxin in stool samples using either molecular biology techniques (PCR detection of the toxin gene) or immunology techniques (ELISA). The bacteria itself may also be detected in foods or in fecal samples. Treatment includes rehydration therapy, electrolyte replacement, and intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are not recommended because they can damage the balance of the microbiota in the gut, and there are concerns about antibiotic resistance. The illness can be prevented through proper handling and cooking of foods, including prompt refrigeration at sufficiently low temperatures and cooking food to a sufficiently high temperature.

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive rod that can be a commensal bacterium as part of the normal microbiota of healthy individuals. When the normal microbiota is disrupted by long-term antibiotic use, it can allow the overgrowth of this bacterium, resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by C. difficile . Antibiotic-associated diarrhea can also be considered a nosocomial disease . Patients at the greatest risk of C. difficile infection are those who are immunocompromised, have been in health-care settings for extended periods, are older, have recently taken antibiotics, have had gastrointestinal procedures done, or use proton pump inhibitors, which reduce stomach acidity and allow proliferation of C. difficile . Because this species can form endospores , it can survive for extended periods of time in the environment under harsh conditions and is a considerable concern in health-care settings.

Questions & Answers

characteristic of Gram negative bacteria
jane Reply
Characteristics of Gram Negative Bacteria As with Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria also contain the peptidoglycan polymer in their cell wall. While this polymer is thin (2 to 4 nanometers in thickness with just about 3 layers of peptidoglycan) in Gram negative bacteria, it's also com
Kaviya
it's also composed of long glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide molecules. This composition serves a number of functions including protecting the bacterial cell from lysis
Kaviya
Good shot
Enoch
Thanks 😊
Kaviya
what was Hans Christian Gram's supported in the modern Microbiology?
Wilson Reply
what is microbial growth
Chisa Reply
The organism responsible for vulva ulcers
nyiter Reply
Why are vascular pathogen poorly communicable from person to person?
Aj Reply
Most vascular pathogens are poorly communicable from person to person because they need a medium to be communicated i,e a vector that would carry them from one person to other
Kaviya
what's the habit of protista
Afieahngwi Reply
They show both autotrophic and heterotrophic mechanisms...
Swetha
thanks
Afieahngwi
welcome...
Swetha
let me mention some water. Air .Food and so on
Gattiek Reply
causes of infectious diseases
Afieahngwi Reply
water.Air
Gattiek
infectious disease are caused by pathogenic micro organisms like bacteria ,fungi..
Swetha
What is pasteurization?
Wilson
are fungi prokaryote or eukaryotes?
Afieahngwi Reply
fungi are eukaryotes.
Swetha
All fungi are eukaryotes. Even micro fungi.
Lad
have..complex cellular organization and membrane bound nucleus ...and..also... having loops of DNA( like plasmids) as.bacteria
Swetha
what enzyme replaces rna nucleotides with dna nucleotides during replication?
Remi Reply
an enzyme called DNA ligase.
Jael
describe the acid fast staining procedure used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis
Salma Reply
bacterial morphology
lf_ Reply
what is the difference between biogenesis & abiogenesis
Mayuri Reply
biogenesis is when living comes out from other living things as a result of reproduction while a biogenesis is the process where living things comes out from non living things
Usman
living things come form other form living things is biogenesis. ....right?
Mayuri
what is mean by pasturation method?
Mayuri Reply
Pasteurization is a process that kills harmful bacteria and creates an extended shelf life for your milk. ... It's pretty simple—we take the milk from the cows, we rapidly heat it to a high enough temperature to kill the bacteria, and then we cool it back down before packaging and shipping it to you
Kaviya
tell me about abiogenessis &biogenesis
Mayuri
discribe aristol spontaneous generation theory in brif
Mayuri Reply
The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BC) was one of the earliest recorded scholars to articulate the theory of spontaneous generation, the notion that life can arise from nonliving matter. Aristotle proposed that life arose from nonliving material if the material contained pneuma (“vital heat”).
Kaviya
thank you 😊
Mayuri
No mention dear 😊
Kaviya

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask