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In this text, we will typically abbreviate an organism’s genus and species after its first mention. The abbreviated form is simply the first initial of the genus, followed by a period and the full name of the species. For example, the bacterium Escherichia coli is shortened to E. coli in its abbreviated form. You will encounter this same convention in other scientific texts as well.

Bergey’s manuals

Whether in a tree or a web, microbes can be difficult to identify and classify. Without easily observable macroscopic features like feathers, feet, or fur, scientists must capture, grow, and devise ways to study their biochemical properties to differentiate and classify microbes. Despite these hurdles, a group of microbiologists created and updated a set of manuals for identifying and classifying microorganisms. First published in 1923 and since updated many times, Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology and Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology are the standard references for identifying and classifying different prokaryotes. ( Appendix D of this textbook is partly based on Bergey’s manuals; it shows how the organisms that appear in this textbook are classified.) Because so many bacteria look identical, methods based on nonvisual characteristics must be used to identify them. For example, biochemical tests can be used to identify chemicals unique to certain species. Likewise, serological tests can be used to identify specific antibodies that will react against the proteins found in certain species. Ultimately, DNA and rRNA sequencing can be used both for identifying a particular bacterial species and for classifying newly discovered species.

  • What is binomial nomenclature and why is it a useful tool for naming organisms?
  • Explain why a resource like one of Bergey’s manuals would be helpful in identifying a microorganism in a sample.

Same name, different strain

Within one species of microorganism, there can be several subtypes called strains. While different strains may be nearly identical genetically, they can have very different attributes. The bacterium Escherichia coli is infamous for causing food poisoning and traveler’s diarrhea. However, there are actually many different strains of E. coli , and they vary in their ability to cause disease.

One pathogenic (disease-causing) E. coli strain that you may have heard of is E. coli O157:H7. In humans, infection from E. coli O157:H7 can cause abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Infection usually originates from contaminated water or food, particularly raw vegetables and undercooked meat. In the 1990s, there were several large outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 thought to have originated in undercooked hamburgers.

While E. coli O157:H7 and some other strains have given E. coli a bad name, most E. coli strains do not cause disease. In fact, some can be helpful. Different strains of E. coli found naturally in our gut help us digest our food, provide us with some needed chemicals, and fight against pathogenic microbes.

  • Carolus Linnaeus developed a taxonomic system for categorizing organisms into related groups.
  • Binomial nomenclature assigns organisms Latinized scientific names with a genus and species designation.
  • A phylogenetic tree is a way of showing how different organisms are thought to be related to one another from an evolutionary standpoint.
  • The first phylogenetic tree contained kingdoms for plants and animals; Ernst Haeckel proposed adding kingdom for protists.
  • Robert Whittaker’s tree contained five kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Fungi, and Monera.
  • Carl Woese used small subunit ribosomal RNA to create a phylogenetic tree that groups organisms into three domains based on their genetic similarity.
  • Bergey’s manuals of determinative and systemic bacteriology are the standard references for identifying and classifying bacteria, respectively.
  • Bacteria can be identified through biochemical tests, DNA/RNA analysis, and serological testing methods.

Fill in the blank

In binomial nomenclature, an organism’s scientific name includes its ________ and __________.

genus, species

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Whittaker proposed adding the kingdoms ________ and ________ to his phylogenetic tree.

Protista and Monera

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__________ are organisms without membrane-bound nuclei.

Prokaryotes

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______ are microorganisms that are not included in phylogenetic trees because they are acellular.

Viruses

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Short answer

What is a phylogenetic tree?

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Which of the five kingdoms in Whittaker’s phylogenetic tree are prokaryotic, and which are eukaryotic?

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What molecule did Woese and Fox use to construct their phylogenetic tree?

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Name some techniques that can be used to identify and differentiate species of bacteria.

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Questions & Answers

what is the size of virus
Beatrice Reply
What is the difference between TVC and Bioburden test
Mohamed
?
Mohamed
structure of bacteria and 10 types
Jennifer Reply
what is accidental host?
Domingo Reply
what is endomembrane system
Ikpi Reply
what is human anatomy
Ikpi
okay. Go ahead and ask
Blessing Reply
Industrial microbiology mcq
mohamed
Okay. What's your question?
Blessing
life arises from living matter or live organism.
Swami Reply
yes
sildra
I think live matter arises from non living matter
sildra
I dont think so...can u explain with an example
Manya
living maters made by non living matters
sildra
non living matters like stones? rocks?
Manya
eno
sildra
no
sildra
then?
Manya
cells are made by C N O minerals etc
sildra
I mentioned these as non living maters
sildra
that's all
sildra
cells are made up of those things but they originate from living things..
Manya
ok
sildra
Ok..good chat:-)
Manya
where are you from
sildra
thanks
sildra
India...u?
Manya
Tamil nadu
sildra
I am from Maharashtra
Manya
what about your studies
sildra
completed bsc.. preparing for msc entrance...wbu?
Manya
same
sildra
are you microbiologist
sildra
yes i am
Manya
good
sildra
what s the scope for micro in ur state?
Manya
did you find your college to higher studies
sildra
have to give an entrance exam for every college here...so lets c
Manya
food industries, medical lab, vaccine industries ,etc
sildra
hoping for pune University...wbu?
Manya
great!
Manya
is that centeral University right
sildra
what is your namr
sildra
hello
Udhaya
Hi
Maruf
Family kindly help me with this question? 1) Shortlist the configurative measurements of the following human anatomical ranges of÷ - Blood ( haemeglobin) in both male and female - Haematocytes in both male and female - Hepatocytes in both male and female - Lymphocyte / T. Lymphocytes in both male
Gifted
My names are Gift Mwale and am a Zambian. Kindly help me with this research which goes like this... 1) Shortlist the configurative measurements of the following human anatomical ranges of ÷ - Blood ( haemeglobin) in both male and female - Hepatocytes in both male and female - Haematocytes in both
Gifted
please what is the full meaning for TCDS
UDEME
from a single cell
Freedom
tcds means transcranial direct current stimulation...in this small electric currents are given to brain( specific parts) to help increase brain performance or to help with depression.. current should be in range 0.5-2.0mA
Manya
what's underlying disease relating unsanitary diet microorganism with the highest rate of epidemology solution and efficacy leading molecules elucidated structural solutions
feven
please can anybody talk about brain tumour and its cure.
BELLO Reply
enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting in over production of hormone.
Kamal Reply
What can u say on Thyroid Cancer?
Abdulkareem
Please, talk about the thyroid cancer.
BELLO
explain the Grave's disease
John Reply
what is cell
Avi Reply
is unit of life
Kamaluddeen
Ok
mohamed
who is an industrial microbiologist
Cynthia Reply
I want to know the biochemical composition of bacteria
Josh Reply
It contains peptidoglcon, DNA nd RNA
Asiya
what are Carrier protein
Ikpi
bacteriophage disadvantage
Momina Reply
disease due to __________ abnormalities are termed primary immunodeficiencies
Tayee Reply
Some primary immunodeficiencies are due to a defect of a single cellular or humoral component of the immune system.
Prince
Examples of primary immunodeficiencies include: chronic granulomatous disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective IgA deficiency etc
Prince
thank you
Nana
explain microbial mutation
Emerald
what is mutation
Cynthia Reply
alteration in genetic makeup
UDEME

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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