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a) diagram of blackhead formation. A normal pore in the skin becomes filled with material forming a whitehed. Darker material forms a blackhead. B) blackheads on a nose.
(a) Acne is characterized by whitehead and blackhead comedones that result from clogged hair follicles. (b) Blackheads, visible as black spots on the skin, have a dark appearance due to the oxidation of lipids in sebum via exposure to the air. (credit a: modification of work by Bruce Blaus)

Often comedones lead to infection by Propionibacterium acnes , a gram-positive, non-spore-forming, aerotolerant anaerobic bacillus found on skin that consumes components of sebum. P. acnes secretes enzymes that damage the hair follicle, causing inflammatory lesions that may include papules , pustules , nodules , or pseudocysts, depending on their size and severity.

Treatment of acne depends on the severity of the case. There are multiple ways to grade acne severity, but three levels are usually considered based on the number of comedones, the number of inflammatory lesions, and the types of lesions. Mild acne is treated with topical agents that may include salicylic acid (which helps to remove old skin cells) or retinoids (which have multiple mechanisms, including the reduction of inflammation). Moderate acne may be treated with antibiotics ( erythromycin , clindamycin ), acne creams (e.g., benzoyl peroxide ), and hormones. Severe acne may require treatment using strong medications such as isotretinoin (a retinoid that reduces oil buildup, among other effects, but that also has serious side effects such as photosensitivity). Other treatments, such as phototherapy and laser therapy to kill bacteria and possibly reduce oil production, are also sometimes used.

  • What is the role of Propionibacterium acnes in causing acne?

Resolution

Sam uses the topical antibiotic over the weekend to treat his wound, but he does not see any improvement. On Monday, the doctor calls to inform him that the results from his laboratory tests are in. The tests show evidence of both Staphylococcus and Streptococcus in his wound. The bacterial species were confirmed using several tests. A passive agglutination test confirmed the presence of S. aureus . In this type of test, latex beads with antibodies cause agglutination when S. aureus is present. Streptococcus pyogenes was confirmed in the wound based on bacitracin (0.04 units) susceptibility as well as latex agglutination tests specific for S. pyogenes .

Because many strains of S. aureus are resistant to antibiotics, the doctor had also requested an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) at the same time the specimen was submitted for identification. The results of the AST indicated no drug resistance for the Streptococcus spp.; the Staphylococcus spp. showed resistance to several common antibiotics, but were susceptible to cefoxitin and oxacillin. Once Sam began to use these new antibiotics, the infection resolved within a week and the lesion healed.

Go back to the previous Clinical Focus box.

Anthrax

The zoonotic disease anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis , a gram-positive, endospore-forming, facultative anaerobe. Anthrax mainly affects animals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and deer, but can be found in humans as well. Sometimes called wool sorter’s disease , it is often transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or animal products, such as wool or hides. However, exposure to B. anthracis can occur by other means, as the endospores are widespread in soils and can survive for long periods of time, sometimes for hundreds of years.

Questions & Answers

I want to know more about sample collection on the field
Ama Reply
In the periodic table the number on the upper left hand side is what
Aurelia Reply
Hydrogen
Tob
am not talking about the elements
Aurelia
Is it the atomic number or the mass number
Aurelia
hologen
Usman
differences between acid fast and non acid fast bacilli
ANTHONY Reply
acid fast have cell wall that holds to carbol fuschin stain while non acid fast doesn't have. it readily releases out the primary stain the carbol fuschin.
LAFIA
where do I post a question that isn't related to that topic
eklectc
hi everyone
kennedy
hello
Olivia
for sure, this question is not related to the topic.
LAFIA
can someone explain the process of glycolysis and the electron transport chain? I'm so freakin lost. it loses carbons, gains hydroxyls, gains, loses Hydrogens....ugh it's like a foreign language to me! or direct me to a youTube video or something that will make this seem easier to concept?
eklectc
it's a loaded question, sorry!
eklectc
why is DNA a genetic material
Mcbeth Reply
DNA is genetic material because it contains chromosome contains the traits which includes characters and behavioral characteristics
chima
why is it difficulty to classfy protista
Tanaka
Good
Eddy
what is infection prevention
Muhammed Reply
good hygiene
Dhaqan
way of preventing disease causing germs
henry
maintenance of sterilization
Pooja
h
Faustina
describe the components of the epidemiology triangle
Muhammed Reply
Hai
Nantongo
hii
Md
where from you
Md
i am Indian
Md
you
Md
Hello friend
effiong
How are you people doing
effiong
أ‌) Host factor ب) pathogen ج) environment
Widad
Hello
Kofi
Hi
Widad
hey hi
kalai
The epidemiologic triangle is made up of three parts: agent, host and environment
Princess
please can a microbiologist will work at hospital
Usman
what are the fluids used in biochemistry Lab used to diagnose diseases
Jb Reply
fadumo qule a gemil3
fadumo Reply
Faadum mahamud disease micro biology
fadumo
makuway diinkaraan suaalo
fadumo
history of microbiology
Balqees Reply
Penicillin is caused by what microorganism
Balqees
Penicillin is caused by what microorganism
Balqees
penicillium notatum
Pooja
M sorry I mean penicillin is caused by what Fungi
Balqees
penicillium fungi
Pooja
when I finish with my bsc in microbiology where wil I work
Usman
Why can we see ourselves in a mirror?
Usman
mention 5 characteristics of prokaryotic cell and also 5 characteristics of euryotic cell
Grace Reply
PROKARYOTES _ does not have nucleus _does not have membrane bound organels like eukaryotes -does not have endoplasmic reticulum _does not have a mitchochondrion _it have plasmid instead of chromosome EUKARYOTE S _have true nucleus _have all membrane bound organels _have mitochondria have
Pooja
continuation _have endoplasmic reticulum _have chromosomes does not have plasmid
Pooja
antigenisity define
kalai
explanation of spores
nahida Reply
what specific types of biological macromolecules do living things require?
Jonathan Reply
define spores its classification
nahida
define spores its structure and classification
nahida
what is a complement
Alecia Reply
something which completes or combine with something else to make it complete.
Kosi
hello
Kosi
medical microbiology
Kosi
you?
Kosi
hi
Amina
Guys who's doing nursing in here
Mumba
I have a question
Mumba
what's the importance of microbiology in nursing
Mumba
yah
Mumba
wow..nice meeting you
Kosi
thanks
Mumba
for
Mumba
anytime
Mumba
microbiology also important for understanding the communicable or non-communicable disease in our hospitals...which is very important for patients and healthy people.
Kiran
what is a microbial flora
Chetan
normal microbial flora
Chetan
Definition of microbiology?
Mohamed Reply
study of microorganisms is known as microbiology
Pooja
no
Mumba
microbiology is the study of small or minute organisms that cannot be seen with our naked eyes but with the aid of a microscope
Mumba
write and explain the infection chain of 6 common disease infections
Adjowa Reply
diphtheria. dysentery. bubonic plague. pneumonia. tuberculosis. typhoid. typhus. Aug 22, 2017
shamim
good afternoon
Dasaah
OK
Dasaah
Good night
fine
Dasaah
which bacteria can be isolated from abattoirs ( slaughter houses).
Omoja
bacteria that csn be isolated from abattoirs are- Clostridium Bacteroides Desulfobulbus Desulfomicrobium Desulfovibrio
Yashkin
Practice MCQ 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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