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ATP contains 3 phosphate groups. Adenylyl cyclase removes two of these phosphate groups. The remaining phosphate group is linked into the sugar to make cAMP. Cyclic AMP is made of a ribose sugar with oxygens at both carbons 2 and 3 (the carbons at the bottom of the pentagon). The oxygen bound to carbon 3 is also bound to the phosphorus. Similarly, the oxygen bound at carbon 5 was already bound to the phosphorus. This forms a ring where the phosphorus is linked with an oxygen to both carbons 3 and 5.
When ATP levels decrease due to depletion of glucose, some remaining ATP is converted to cAMP by adenylyl cyclase. Thus, increased cAMP levels signal glucose depletion.
Diagram of the lac operon with and without cAMP. A) In the absence of cAMP, CAP does not bind the promoter. RNA polymerase does bind to the promoter and transcription occurs at a low rate. In the presence of cAMP, CAP binds the promoter and increases RNA polymerase activity. This is shown with a circle labeled cAMP + CAP bound to the promoter. RNA polymerase is also bound to the promoter and a thick arrow indicates faster transcription. B) cAMO-CAP complex stimulates RNA polymerase activity and increases RNA synthesis. However, even in the presence of cAMP-CAP complex, RNA synthesis is blocked when repressor is bound ot he operator. This is shows as the cAMP + CAP circle as well as the RNA polymerase bound to the promoter. The repressor is bound to the operator and this blocks RNA polymerase from moving forward.
(a) In the presence of cAMP, CAP binds to the promoters of operons, like the lac operon, that encode genes for enzymes for the use of alternate substrates. (b) For the lac operon to be expressed, there must be activation by cAMP-CAP as well as removal of the lac repressor from the operator.
Conditions Affecting Transcription of the lac Operon
Glucose CAP binds Lactose Repressor binds Transcription
+ + No
+ + Some
+ + No
+ + Yes
  • What affects the binding of the trp operon repressor to the operator?
  • How and when is the behavior of the lac repressor protein altered?
  • In addition to being repressible, how else is the lac operon regulated?

Global responses of prokaryotes

In prokaryotes, there are also several higher levels of gene regulation that have the ability to control the transcription of many related operons simultaneously in response to an environmental signal. A group of operons all controlled simultaneously is called a regulon .

Alarmones

When sensing impending stress, prokaryotes alter the expression of a wide variety of operon s to respond in coordination. They do this through the production of alarmones , which are small intracellular nucleotide derivatives. Alarmones change which genes are expressed and stimulate the expression of specific stress-response genes. The use of alarmones to alter gene expression in response to stress appears to be important in pathogenic bacteria. On encountering host defense mechanisms and other harsh conditions during infection, many operons encoding virulence genes are upregulated in response to alarmone signaling. Knowledge of these responses is key to being able to fully understand the infection process of many pathogens and to the development of therapies to counter this process.

Alternate σ factors

Since the σ subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase confers specificity as to which promoters should be transcribed, altering the σ factor used is another way for bacteria to quickly and globally change what regulons are transcribed at a given time. The σ factor recognizes sequences within a bacterial promoter , so different σ factors will each recognize slightly different promoter sequences. In this way, when the cell senses specific environmental conditions, it may respond by changing which σ factor it expresses, degrading the old one and producing a new one to transcribe the operons encoding genes whose products will be useful under the new environmental condition. For example, in sporulating bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium (which include many pathogens), a group of σ factors controls the expression of the many genes needed for sporulation in response to sporulation-stimulating signals.

  • What is the name given to a collection of operons that can be regulated as a group?
  • What type of stimulus would trigger the transcription of a different σ factor?

Questions & Answers

write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas
what are the five predisposing factors of opportunistic infections
Asher Reply
1. long term exposure to diseases, that the body immunity weakens.
prosper
2. Nature Of some diseases to weaken body immunity such as, AIDS.
prosper
3. Use of immuno-suppresive drugs.
prosper
anyone... need a hand here 🙋😞
prosper
Low immune is the major cause eg for kaposis sarcoma
Davismith
suitable conditions e.g temp,
Muhammad
what os gnormal flora
kifayat Reply
morphological and genetic classification of bacteria
Potter Reply
what is the morphogical
Bupe
h
Sudhir
morphologycal is defined as relating to the branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms,and with relationship between their structures.
Nadiya
relating to the form or structure of things .
Nadiya
what is the meaning of lessions
oluwa
i am frim Afghanistan.
wahidullah Reply
iam from iraq
Haidar
and i'm from pakistan
Muhammad
Nice
Amina
what's about the qualification
Muhammad
Hlo
Asiya
Hmm
Number
Almustafa Muhammad from Nigeria
Mujtafa
am ustaz Abdulsalam from Ghana
ustaz
am Bupe Chifita from Zambia
Bupe
what is microbiology
Bupe
is the study of invisible micro organism
Mujtafa
microbiology is the study of very too small organisms which we can't see with naked eyes ......in other words ....study of microorganism is called microbiology.
Nadiya
Hello! How Can Microorganisms Be Isolated From The Skin?.. 5 ways if possible. (briefly)
prosper
from skin swabbing is the prefer method worldwide
Muhammad
thanks Muhammad Nauman very much!
prosper
hi
Meek
hi Meek
prosper
are there any other ways pals?
prosper
hi prosper
Meek
hello Meek Mild.
prosper
Any question or ideas, Meek?😊
prosper
and if a patient have any blister or abscess on the skin then first cut the blister or abscess. inside material is taking by syringe.
Muhammad
in case of fingernail or toenails simply cut a small piece of nail and culture on the appropriate media at a required temperature and time
Muhammad
Again, thanks Mr. Muhammad! I appreciate the help.
prosper
you welcom prosper 😊
Muhammad
what are the media use for skin swab?
Sieh-Mlanwin
blood and macckonkey mostly usededia for skin bacteria
Muhammad
used media*
Muhammad
@ SIEH mostly fungal infection occurs in skin so SDA ( Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) or MEA ( Malt extract agar) are common.
Online
thanks
Sieh-Mlanwin
Microbiologicam source of vitamins
Bachi Reply
what do you mean?
Md
that's example?
Md
hi everyone
Muhammad
such as. c/s media
Md
hmm hlw
Md
just tell me about that ?
Md
where are u from
Muhammad

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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