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Anh-Hue Thi Tu (Senior Reviewer), Georgia Southwestern State University
Dr. Anh-Hue Tu (born in Saigon, Vietnam) earned a BS in Chemistry from Baylor University and a PhD in Medical Sciences from Texas A&M Health Science Center. At the University of Alabama–Birmingham, she completed postdoctoral appointments in the areas of transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli and characterization of virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae and then became a research assistant professor working in the field of mycoplasmology. In 2004, Dr. Tu joined Georgia Southwestern State University where she currently serves as Professor, teaching various biology courses and overseeing undergraduate student research. Her areas of research interest include gene regulation, bacterial genetics, and molecular biology. Dr. Tu's teaching philosophy is to instill in her students the love of science by using critical thinking. As a teacher, she believes it is important to take technical information and express it in a way that is understandable to any student.

Brian M. Forster, Saint Joseph's University
Dr. Brian M. Forster received his BS in Biology from Binghamton University and his PhD in Microbiology from Cornell University. In 2011, he joined the faculty of Saint Joseph’s University. Dr. Forster is the laboratory coordinator for the natural science laboratory-based classes designed for students who are not science majors. He teaches courses in general biology, heredity and evolution, environmental science, and microbiology for students wishing to enter nursing or allied health programs. He has publications in the Journal of Bacteriology , the Journal of Microbiology&Biology Education and Tested Studies for Laboratory Education (ABLE Proceedings).

Philip Lister, Central New Mexico Community College
Dr. Philip Lister earned his BS in Microbiology (1986) from Kansas State University and PhD in Medical Microbiology (1992) from Creighton University. He was a Professor of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at Creighton University (1994-2011), with appointments in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy. He also served as Associate Director of the Center for Research in Anti-Infectives and Biotechnology. He has published research articles, reviews, and book chapters related to antimicrobial resistance and pharmacodynamics, and has served as an Editor for the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy . He is currently serving as Chair of Biology and Biotechnology at Central New Mexico Community College.

Contributing authors

Summer Allen, Brown University
Ann Auman, Pacific Lutheran University
Graciela Brelles-Mariño, Universidad Nacional de la Plata
Myriam Alhadeff Feldman, Lake Washington Institute of Technology
Paul Flowers, University of North Carolina–Pembroke
Clifton Franklund, Ferris State University
Ann Paterson, Williams Baptist University
George Pinchuk, Mississippi University for Women
Ben Rowley, University of Central Arkansas
Mark Sutherland, Hendrix College


Michael Angell, Eastern Michigan University
Roberto Anitori, Clark College
James Bader, Case Western Reserve University
Amy Beumer, College of William and Mary
Gilles Bolduc, Massasoit Community College
Susan Bornstein-Forst, Marian University
Nancy Boury, Iowa State University
Jennifer Brigati, Maryville College
Harold Bull, University of Saskatchewan
Evan Burkala, Oklahoma State University
Bernadette Connors, Dominican College
Richard J. Cristiano, Houston Community College–Northwest
AnnMarie DelliPizzi, Dominican College
Elisa M. LaBeau DiMenna, Central New Mexico Community College
Diane Dixon, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Randy Durren, Longwood University
Elizabeth A. B. Emmert, Salisbury University
Karen Frederick, Marygrove College
Sharon Gusky, Northwestern Connecticut Community College
Deborah V. Harbour, College of Southern Nevada
Randall Harris, William Carey University
Diane Hartman, Baylor University
Angela Hartsock, University of Akron
Nazanin Zarabadi Hebel, Houston Community College
Heather Klenovich, Community College of Alleghany County
Kathleen Lavoie, Plattsburgh State University
Toby Mapes, Blue Ridge Community College
Barry Margulies, Towson University
Kevin M. McCabe, Columbia Gorge Community College
Karin A. Melkonian, Long Island University
Jennifer Metzler, Ball State University
Ellyn R. Mulcahy, Johnson County Community College
Jonas Okeagu, Fayetteville State University
Randall Kevin Pegg, Florida State College–Jacksonville
Judy Penn, Shoreline Community College
Lalitha Ramamoorthy, Marian University
Drew Rholl, North Park University
Hilda Rodriguez, Miami Dade College
Sean Rollins, Fitchburg State University
Sameera Sayeed, University of Pittsburgh
Pramila Sen, Houston Community College
Brian Róbert Shmaefsky, Kingwood College
Janie Sigmon, York Technical College
Denise Signorelli, College of Southern Nevada
Molly Smith, South Georgia State College–Waycross
Paula Steiert, Southwest Baptist University
Robert Sullivan, Fairfield University
Suzanne Wakim, Butte Community College
Anne Weston, Francis Crick Institute
Valencia L. Williams, West Coast University
James Wise, Chowan State University
Virginia Young, Mercer University

Questions & Answers

what is microbiology
Ayeniyi Reply
microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are too small to be visible to the naked eyes, examples bacteria and fungi etc
study of microorganism such as becteria etc
study of microorganisms and their effect on organisms life
characteristic of Gram negative bacteria
jane Reply
Characteristics of Gram Negative Bacteria As with Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria also contain the peptidoglycan polymer in their cell wall. While this polymer is thin (2 to 4 nanometers in thickness with just about 3 layers of peptidoglycan) in Gram negative bacteria, it's also com
it's also composed of long glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide molecules. This composition serves a number of functions including protecting the bacterial cell from lysis
Good shot
Thanks 😊
what was Hans Christian Gram's supported in the modern Microbiology?
Wilson Reply
what is microbial growth
Chisa Reply
The organism responsible for vulva ulcers
nyiter Reply
Why are vascular pathogen poorly communicable from person to person?
Aj Reply
Most vascular pathogens are poorly communicable from person to person because they need a medium to be communicated i,e a vector that would carry them from one person to other
what's the habit of protista
Afieahngwi Reply
They show both autotrophic and heterotrophic mechanisms...
let me mention some water. Air .Food and so on
Gattiek Reply
causes of infectious diseases
Afieahngwi Reply
infectious disease are caused by pathogenic micro organisms like bacteria ,fungi..
What is pasteurization?
are fungi prokaryote or eukaryotes?
Afieahngwi Reply
fungi are eukaryotes.
All fungi are eukaryotes. Even micro fungi.
have..complex cellular organization and membrane bound nucleus ...and..also... having loops of DNA( like plasmids) as.bacteria
what enzyme replaces rna nucleotides with dna nucleotides during replication?
Remi Reply
an enzyme called DNA ligase.
describe the acid fast staining procedure used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis
Salma Reply
bacterial morphology
lf_ Reply
what is the difference between biogenesis & abiogenesis
Mayuri Reply
biogenesis is when living comes out from other living things as a result of reproduction while a biogenesis is the process where living things comes out from non living things
living things come form other form living things is biogenesis. ....right?
what is mean by pasturation method?
Mayuri Reply
Pasteurization is a process that kills harmful bacteria and creates an extended shelf life for your milk. ... It's pretty simple—we take the milk from the cows, we rapidly heat it to a high enough temperature to kill the bacteria, and then we cool it back down before packaging and shipping it to you
tell me about abiogenessis &biogenesis

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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