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A micrograph showing spherical cells attached to a matrix on a surface. A photo of green water in a bucket.
Medical devices that are inserted into a patient’s body often become contaminated with a thin biofilm of microorganisms enmeshed in the sticky material they secrete. The electron micrograph (left) shows the inside walls of an in-dwelling catheter. Arrows point to the round cells of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria attached to the layers of extracellular substrate. The garbage can (right) served as a rain collector. The arrow points to a green biofilm on the sides of the container. (credit left: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit right: modification of work by NASA)

We are all familiar with the slimy layer on a pond surface or that makes rocks slippery. These are examples of biofilms—microorganisms embedded in thin layers of matrix material ( [link] ). Biofilms were long considered random assemblages of cells and had little attention from researchers. Recently, progress in visualization and biochemical methods has revealed that biofilms are an organized ecosystem within which many cells, usually of different species of bacteria, fungi, and algae, interact through cell signaling and coordinated responses. The biofilm provides a protected environment in harsh conditions and aids colonization by microorganisms. Biofilms also have clinical importance. They form on medical devices, resist routine cleaning and sterilization, and cause health-acquired infections. Within the body, biofilms form on the teeth as plaque, in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis, and on the cardiac tissue of patients with endocarditis. The slime layer helps protect the cells from host immune defenses and antibiotic treatments.

Studying biofilms requires new approaches. Because of the cells’ adhesion properties, many of the methods for culturing and counting cells that are explored in this chapter are not easily applied to biofilms. This is the beginning of a new era of challenges and rewarding insight into the ways that microorganisms grow and thrive in nature.

Questions & Answers

what a tropism in host
Khaliil Reply
HPV vaccine given to school children
Jayani Reply
Differentiation between electron, proton and neutron
Zainab Reply
proton .possitive charge electron . negative charge neutron . having no charge
Kifayat
proton positive charge. electron negative charge. And no charge of the neutron.
Saman
the nucleus is composed of electrons (-) charge and they turn around the Nucleon the Nucleon = neutron(no charge) + proton (+) a neutron can turn to a proton and vice versa (cuz they have the same mass=1)
BENNINI
what are the roles of microorganisms in human being
Buhari Reply
some causes disease, others are not disease causing
Clark
they're necessary in our digestive system+the skin,everywhere actually the number of them in the human body alone is higher(by millions)than the number of humans cells,they're indispensable in the food industry,others are fundamental to make medicines and more,what exactly are you asking about ?
BENNINI
What are the natural occurring elements found in organisms on earth?
Otu Reply
some of the naturally occurring elements found in organisms are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen
Yashi
thanks
Mariam
some of them are carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur
Jamal
what is Zika virus?
Somali Reply
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. 
Cumar
in pregnancy it can cause the unborn child's head to underdevelop so that it does not grow along with the rest of the body
Bethany
intracellular vesicles are found in
Akshay Reply
how do i report widal slide results
Isaac Reply
how food can be used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
Ashi Reply
what is the importance of understanding chemistry in the field of microbiology and food technology?
Charmaine Reply
What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
Abia Reply
main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
Iqra
prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
Yashi
what s anatomy
jane Reply
its mean body structure, function, and systems
gazi
study of internal structure of living things
Falere
anatomy is the study structure of the made human
isir
anotomy is the actual study of body internally and externally Which include how itis made. for what and what is need of this
Iqra
la science anatomie c'est la science qui nous aide à étudier l'homme
Baraka
okay
Baraka
Ancestor are they real
Rapheal Reply
yes of course
David
yes please
Clark
50 50, depending on the accuracy of the clan records.
Vincent
okay
Baraka
Why protist is not a kingdom of Linnaeus 'S taxonomy?
Neha Reply
I dont know
Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
Lad
name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
Pohor
what is microbiology
Baraka
the study of large living organisms
Pratibha
the study of organisms which are micro in range
Vency
what is autoclaving?
Yashi
process for sterilization
Vency
is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
Clark
what is difference between hot air oven and autoclave as they both are used for sterilization ?
Vency
autoclave basically do moist heat sterilization while hot air oven do sterilization by dry heat.....
Yashi
what is the microbe
HUSSAIN
which method out of these two is best?
Yashi
why human have microbe
HUSSAIN
Hi
Sadam
hi to all
Sadam
depends on what to sterilize
Vency
microbes
Md
what is knowledge
HUSSAIN
well idea
Daniel

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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