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Photo of Stanley Miller. Diagram of the Miller-Urey experiment. A flask of water (to simulate the ocean) is heated. This is connected via glass tubing in a closed loop to: a vacuum pup, a flask containing gases (water, methane, hydrogen, ammonia) and an electric spark (to stimulate lightning), and final to a condenser that cools the water. The cooled water contains organic compounds.
Scientist Stanley Miller (pictured) and Harold Urey demonstrated that organic compounds may have originated naturally from inorganic matter. The Miller-Urey experiment illustrated here simulated the effects of lightning on chemical compounds found in the earth’s early atmosphere. The resulting reactions yielded amino acids, the chemical building blocks of proteins. (credit “photo”: modification of work by NASA; credit “illustration”: modification of work by Courtney Harrington)

The earth is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old, but for the first 2 billion years, the atmosphere lacked oxygen, without which the earth could not support life as we know it. One hypothesis about how life emerged on earth involves the concept of a “primordial soup.” This idea proposes that life began in a body of water when metals and gases from the atmosphere combined with a source of energy, such as lightning or ultraviolet light, to form the carbon compounds that are the chemical building blocks of life. In 1952, Stanley Miller (1930–2007), a graduate student at the University of Chicago, and his professor Harold Urey (1893–1981), set out to confirm this hypothesis in a now-famous experiment. Miller and Urey combined what they believed to be the major components of the earth’s early atmosphere—water (H 2 O), methane (CH 4 ), hydrogen (H 2 ), and ammonia (NH 3 )—and sealed them in a sterile flask. Next, they heated the flask to produce water vapor and passed electric sparks through the mixture to mimic lightning in the atmosphere ( [link] ). When they analyzed the contents of the flask a week later, they found amino acids, the structural units of proteins—molecules essential to the function of all organisms.

Questions & Answers

Parabens are used as a?
Qwert Reply
what is microbiology
Carol Reply
de study of small living microorganism
Lubinda
what are the benefits microbiologist derive from the follow areas: 1. medicine 2. Environmental science 3. Food and drink production 4. Fundamental research 5. Agriculture 6. pharmaceutical industry 7. Genetic engineering
Narh
microbial genetics mcqs
kajal Reply
hii
Happy
what is the importance of learning microbiology in nursing?
Grace Reply
привет
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it's about child-care?
__
the way of common children disease? hmm 🤔🤔
__
how do you mean child care?
Grace
Was ist die Wichtigkeit beim Lernen von Mikrtobiologie in der Pflege? Es ist notwendig dass die Schwestern allgemein und auch die Kinderschwestern eine Ausbildung in der Mikrobiologie erfahren. Sie sind in ihrem Beruf gefo
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you need to know the truth about diseases. the microbes are have immunity to some pharmacy.
__
is base pairing rule states that adenine pair with thymine cytosine pair with guannie what will be the complementry strand to acggt
KooL Reply
tgcca
Tanaya
yes
Swetha
introduction to microbiology
Shweta Reply
Study the life of microorganisms present in the environment their survivals etc..
ayesha
Microscopic organisms, commonly known as microorganisms or microbes, are found all around us and even inside our bodies. The category 'Microbes' includes a massive range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, archaea and protozoa.
Amre
fermented foods likely benefited ancestors to preserve foods and make other foods like milk, cheese, and bread using microbes.
Zinnia Reply
the evidence that I would support the statement regarding ancient people ideas that disease was transmitted by things they could not see is by the discoveries under a microscope. Many microbiologists have discovered certain diseases caused by microbes.
Zinnia
plz give the information about glyoxylate cycle
kamini Reply
what type of information?
Sapiens
I need medical microbiology mcqs books for Mbbs
Kisota
for pakistani mbbs or other?
Sapiens
what is microbial soup?
Osborn Reply
😃😂funny question isn't it?!!! sorry for inconvenience 😊
ayesha
most bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans are classified in terms if their preferable ph as
Beesan Reply
what is micro
Kabul Reply
extremely small in size
Swetha
almost invisible to the naked eye
Peter
thanks
Sadiq
uwc
Peter
invisible sized objects
Sivasri
invisible sized object or specimens.which is used to see in only the microscope that specimens or objective called the micro
Sivasri
small organism that can be seen by use of Microbes
Manyang
why do you need to study microorganisms
Sala
what is microbiology?
Green Reply
microbiology is a branch of biology .it deals with the study of microorganisms life cycle , uses, disadvantages,and it impact in any other fields .which is used to view in microscope .
Sivasri
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology and parasitology. 
Raj
In short , it is the study of micro organisms and types , characteristics.
Kaviya
can you explain the structure of rna in detail
Dhanalakshmi Reply
RNA is of many types....like mRNA,tRNA,rRNA,snRNA,guideRNA..etc .
Swetha
but generally RNA is single stranded
Swetha
It contains adenine guanine cytosine , instead of thymine it contains uracil.
Swetha
ribonucleic acid present in RNA.. where as in DNA it is deoxyribonucleic acid...and ribonucleotide is present in RNA
Swetha
RNA is a blue print of DNA. it has the information from DNA....and we can predict the base panirs in DNA if we have the RNA....copy of that DNA
Swetha
can either have positive or negative polarity
Ernestine
Diatoms need..... With the help of which they can construct their beautiful cell wall
Prathmesh Reply
Microbial growth curve shows a.... Curve.
Shambhuraj Reply
diminishing curve
Oluwapamilerin
It represents the decreasing growth of an organism.
Swetha

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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