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Table titled: Common functional groups found in biomolecules; 3 columns, name, functional group and class of compound.  Aldehyde has a red C  double bonded O and an H; the C is also bound to a black R. This is found in carbohydrates. Amine has a red C double bonded to an O and single bonded to an NH. The C and the N are each also bound to a black R. This is found in proteins. Amino has a red NH2 bound to a black R. This is found in amino acids and proteins. Phosphate has a red PO3H2; the P is also bound to a black R. This is found in nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP. Carbonyl has a red C double bonded to an O; the C is also bound to 2 black Rs. This is found in ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides. Carboxylic acid has a red C double bonded to an O and to an OH; the C is also bound to a black R. This is found in amino acids, proteins, and fatty acids. Ester has a red C double bonded to an O and single bonded to another O. The C is bound to a black R and the single bonded O is also bound to a black R. This is found in lipids and nucleic acids. Ether has a red O bound to 2 black Rs. This is found in disaccharides, polysaccharides, and lipids. Hydroxyl has a red OH bound to a black R; this is found in alcohols, monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Ketone has a red C double bonded to an O; the C is also bound to 2 black Rs. This is found in carbohydrates. Methyl has a red CH3 bound to a black R. This is found in methylated compounds such as methyl alcohols and methyl esters. Sulfhydryl has a black R bound to a red SH.. This is found in amino acids and proteins


Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. Functional groups combine with the chain to form biomolecules. Because these biomolecules are typically large, we call them macromolecule s. Many biologically relevant macromolecules are formed by linking together a great number of identical, or very similar, smaller organic molecules. The smaller molecules act as building blocks and are called monomer s , and the macromolecules that result from their linkage are called polymer s . Cells and cell structures include four main groups of carbon-containing macromolecules: polysaccharides , proteins , lipids , and nucleic acids . The first three groups of molecules will be studied throughout this chapter. The biochemistry of nucleic acids will be discussed in Biochemistry of the Genome .

Of the many possible ways that monomers may be combined to yield polymers, one common approach encountered in the formation of biological macromolecules is dehydration synthesis . In this chemical reaction, monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that results in the formation of water molecules as a byproduct:

H—monomer—OH + H—monomer—OH H—monomer—monomer—OH + H 2 O

[link] shows dehydration synthesis of glucose binding together to form maltose and a water molecule. [link] summarizes macromolecules and some of their functions.

A diagram showing dehydration synthesis. On the left are two glucose molecules. The OH attached to carbon 1 in the first molecule is red; as is the H attached to the O on carbon 4 in the second molecule. An arrow indicates points to a new molecule that is missing the red OH and H from the previous image. In their place, the O that was attached to the H on carbon 4 is now also attached to carbon 1 of the other molecule.
In this dehydration synthesis reaction, two molecules of glucose are linked together to form maltose. In the process, a water molecule is formed.
Some Functions of Macromolecules
Macromolecule Functions
Carbohydrates Energy storage, receptors, food, structural role in plants, fungal cell walls, exoskeletons of insects
Lipids Energy storage, membrane structure, insulation, hormones, pigments
Nucleic acids Storage and transfer of genetic information
Proteins Enzymes, structure, receptors, transport, structural role in the cytoskeleton of a cell and the extracellular matrix
  • What is the byproduct of a dehydration synthesis reaction?

Key concepts and summary

  • The most abundant elements in cells are hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  • Life is carbon based. Each carbon atom can bind to another one producing a carbon skeleton that can be straight, branched, or ring shaped.
  • The same numbers and types of atoms may bond together in different ways to yield different molecules called isomers . Isomers may differ in the bonding sequence of their atoms ( structural isomers ) or in the spatial arrangement of atoms whose bonding sequences are the same ( stereoisomers ), and their physical and chemical properties may vary slightly or drastically.
  • Functional groups confer specific chemical properties to molecules bearing them. Common functional groups in biomolecules are hydroxyl, methyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, and sulfhydryl.
  • Macromolecules are polymers assembled from individual units, the monomers , which bind together like building blocks. Many biologically significant macromolecules are formed by dehydration synthesis , a process in which monomers bind together by combining their functional groups and generating water molecules as byproducts.


Aldehydes, amides, carboxylic acids, esters, and ketones all contain carbonyl groups.


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Two molecules containing the same types and numbers of atoms but different bonding sequences are called enantiomers.


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Short answer

Why are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen the most abundant elements in living matter and, therefore, considered macronutrients?

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Identify the functional group in each of the depicted structural formulas.

Figure A has a C bound to an OH. Figure B has a C double bonded to an O as well as a single bonded OH and R. Figure C has an N bound to an R and two Hs.
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Questions & Answers

similarities between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell
Ednah Reply
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. ... Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Prokaryotes include two groups: bacteria and another group called archaea.
what is different between plasma and serum?
difference between plasma and serum is that plasma is liquid n serum is fluid
what is microbiology
what is the diseases caused by the microorganisms
both cells have plasma membrane, which services as a barrier between the inside of the cell and outside. both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes. they receive messages from messanger RNA molecules, telling them what proteins the cell needs.
Some bacteria infection
what are pathogens
Oluka Reply
any disease causing microorganism that can invade the body and cause harm
hepatitis b
what's da answer
any diseases that course harmful to body
hepatitis is usually implementery of the liver and is commonly course by virus infection
a type of virus that causes severe illness lasting from two to six weeks it may cause massive lived necrosis and cirrhosis
hepatitis B are transmitted when in contact with body fluid such as blood,semen,varginal secration that contain the hepatitis b virus
I understand necrosis,means death of all cell or injury of blood supply, but what is cirrhosis pls
sorry meant liver cirrhosis
good evening all
ok liver damage
I have a question
Hey welcome all of you...i think you are discussing about Micro-organisms..what does it Micro?
how about, scabies (bacteria) yeah can some one gist me abt it
sorry what doest it mean Micro organism?
microorganism are minute living organisms found almost everywhere. they can be autotrophic heterotrophic or chemotrophic
Tell me about enzyme kinetics
wowoww thanks a lot farmuyiwa Alice
have anyone colony pigmentation of different types of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Edwardsiella, vibros,
yes dear sadiqur Bacterias are live in everywhere.. .
microorganisms are arganism that cannot been seen with 👀 until by the use of microscope
microorganisms are arganism that cannot been seen with 👀 until by the use of microscope
yhea organisms are organisms they are naked eye/can't seen by our eyes
and scabies are one of the most common skin condition that can course itches and raches.
and also scabies are not infection, but an infestation
my Q is what is the contribution of van-leeuwenhoek in field of microbiology
Antony van leevenhoek is father of microbiology.
Anton Van leewun hook is discovered Microscope it's true or not? who can brief me please
micro organisms are organism that cannot be seen with an aided eyes ,but by the use of microscope
Yes.. He discover first microscope. He take 2 lence at a time and he saw the plant cells... Thus he was called father of microbiology
who examined water from a bathtub and discovered microbes
for instance any type of Stagnant water is creat there are d/t tupes of small animals.. so those animals are called Micro organism?
thank you javpal for Describing.
can you please differentiate between vacuoles and inclusion bodies
Noor Reply
vacuoles consists of watery solution called cell sap while bodies are organelles
5 difference please
Archaea is an odd type of bacteria that live in extreme environments; high salt, high temperature etc. usually called extremophiles.
Danesia Reply
you know anyone that has delt with enterobacter agglomerans.
it is a type of gram negative bacteria and its ubiquitous mostly isolated from plant stuffs and also from faecal material of animals. I heard the name pantoea . it is bacillus in structure.
What are the classification of microorganisms
Portia Reply
Basic classification are eukaryotic and prokaryotic..
micro organisms are classified into three namely: Archaea, eukaryote and prokaryotic organisms
Yay that's right
what is archaea
I've got an issue with the message view
Frank Reply
Is there any effective way to learn microbiology.
Frank Reply
I have some basic knowledge of biology. I mean i'm totally beginner in that field.
Assuming that i'm interested in neuroscience. What is the best way to master that particular subject.
Can you wait me just a minute
Iam apologies for guidance you in neuroscience.. I'm not physician.. I'm microbiologist
My pleasure to join to you
Let's begin a conversation
Frank Reply
What would be saying
do you know anything about microbiology
I have so much studying to catch up on🙄
any study tips
Yas of course
What would you like to know
well i'm studying Pharmacy second year and i just started With Microbiology
if you have any basics to tell us 🤷🏻‍♀️ would be helpful
Yas, first you must know that you will have a very easy lecture..
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology
A simple definition for microbiology
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology.. you must learn the bacteria..its structure.. Classification of bacteria according to shape..
It's so easy
What triggers the natural killer cells
jenipher Reply
microbiology is the study of science which deals with study of microorganism e.g .virus,bacteria
sufian Reply
microbiology is a branch of science that deals with invisible microorganisms.
microbiology is the branch of science which deals with the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
what is microbiology
Safwan Reply
history of microbiology
give all details about cell
Samim Reply
Give me another names for all hypersensitivity
Don Reply
Give me the modern father of microbiology
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Louis pasteur is father of modern microbiology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is only the father of microbiology
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe the mos. whereas pasteur is the one who described about the vaccine , pasteurization etc.
what is the virulence factor
mukhtar Reply
is the abilityof pathogen that cause disease

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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