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  • Identify two locations where you would likely find an ICD code.

Part 2

David’s doctor was concerned that his symptoms included prickling and itching at the site of the dog bite; these sensations could be early symptoms of rabies. Several tests are available to diagnose rabies in live patients, but no single antemortem test is adequate. The doctor decided to take samples of David’s blood, saliva, and skin for testing. The skin sample was taken from the nape of the neck (posterior side of the neck near the hairline). It was about 6-mm long and contained at least 10 hair follicles, including the superficial cutaneous nerve. An immunofluorescent staining technique was used on the skin biopsy specimen to detect rabies antibodies in the cutaneous nerves at the base of the hair follicles. A test was also performed on a serum sample from David’s blood to determine whether any antibodies for the rabies virus had been produced.

Meanwhile, the saliva sample was used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, a test that can detect the presence of viral nucleic acid (RNA). The blood tests came back positive for the presence of rabies virus antigen, prompting David’s doctor to prescribe prophylactic treatment. David is given a series of intramuscular injections of human rabies immunoglobulin along with a series of rabies vaccines.

  • Why does the immunofluorescent technique look for rabies antibodies rather than the rabies virus itself?
  • If David has contracted rabies, what is his prognosis?

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Key concepts and summary

  • Viruses are generally ultramicroscopic, typically from 20 nm to 900 nm in length. Some large viruses have been found.
  • Virions are acellular and consist of a nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, but not both, surrounded by a protein capsid . There may also be a phospholipid membrane surrounding the capsid.
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites.
  • Viruses are known to infect various types of cells found in plants, animals, fungi, protists, bacteria, and archaea. Viruses typically have limited host ranges and infect specific cell types.
  • Viruses may have helical , polyhedral, or complex shapes.
  • Classification of viruses is based on morphology, type of nucleic acid, host range, cell specificity, and enzymes carried within the virion.
  • Like other diseases, viral diseases are classified using ICD codes.

True/false

True or False: Scientists have identified viruses that are able to infect fungal cells.

True

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Fill in the blank

A virus that infects a bacterium is called a/an ___________________.

bacteriophage

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A/an __________ virus possesses characteristics of both a polyhedral and helical virus.

complex

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A virus containing only nucleic acid and a capsid is called a/an ___________________ virus or __________________ virus.

naked or nonenveloped

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The ____________ _____________ on the bacteriophage allow for binding to the bacterial cell.

tail fibers

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Short answer

Discuss the geometric differences among helical, polyhedral, and complex viruses.

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What was the meaning of the word “virus” in the 1880s and why was it used to describe the cause of tobacco mosaic disease?

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Questions & Answers

what is Zika virus?
Somali Reply
intracellular vesicles are found in
Akshay Reply
how do i report widal slide results
Isaac Reply
how food can be used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
Ashi Reply
what is the importance of understanding chemistry in the field of microbiology and food technology?
Charmaine Reply
What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
Abia Reply
main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
Iqra
prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
Yashi
what s anatomy
jane Reply
its mean body structure, function, and systems
gazi
study of internal structure of living things
Falere
anatomy is the study structure of the made human
isir
anotomy is the actual study of body internally and externally Which include how itis made. for what and what is need of this
Iqra
la science anatomie c'est la science qui nous aide à étudier l'homme
Baraka
okay
Baraka
Ancestor are they real
Rapheal Reply
yes of course
David
yes please
Clark
50 50, depending on the accuracy of the clan records.
Vincent
okay
Baraka
Why protist is not a kingdom of Linnaeus 'S taxonomy?
Neha Reply
I dont know
Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
Lad
name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
Pohor
what is microbiology
Baraka
the study of large living organisms
Pratibha
the study of organisms which are micro in range
Vency
what is autoclaving?
Yashi
process for sterilization
Vency
is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
Clark
what is difference between hot air oven and autoclave as they both are used for sterilization ?
Vency
autoclave basically do moist heat sterilization while hot air oven do sterilization by dry heat.....
Yashi
what is the microbe
HUSSAIN
which method out of these two is best?
Yashi
why human have microbe
HUSSAIN
Hi
Sadam
hi to all
Sadam
depends on what to sterilize
Vency
microbes
Md
what is knowledge
HUSSAIN
well idea
Daniel
what are the importance of microbiologe to a nurse
Enny Reply
it enable a nurse to know the weight and height of a patient
Abotu
it helps the nurse in way as to give first aid to patient on which basis doctor will take diagonos
Iqra
disagree with both of you
Akhtar
ok
Abotu
Your Own idea
Abotu
it helps a nurse to be able to counsel a patient /client
Abotu
cell culture
Tean
Types of micro organisms
Jennifer Reply
Who discovered plant and animal cell
Jennifer
Robert Hooke
Martha
Father of microbiology
Jennifer Reply
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Satarupa
Why are mitochondria and chloroplasts unable to multiply outside of a host cell?
Iqra Reply
iqra mitochondria arises from the division of existing mitochondria and they are fused together. they move around inside the cell with the interactions of the cytoskeleton that's why mitochondria unable to multiply outside the host cells chloroplasts has its own separate DNA from the plant cell.
Rana
short not on medical microbiology
Massah Reply
Hy
Iqra
hope you fine
Arif
love you
Arif
Assalamualaikum
Suhaib
arai yeh micro kai sth kis ko love hua
Umer
icrobiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses
Suhaib
iqra iqbal
Arif
What is gram syaining?
Arif
to differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacty
Umer
True
Arif
where you are from
Arif
i m frm sopore..kashmir
Umer
i m frm baramulla .. Kashmir
Umer
and u
Umer
umer
Arif
and i m from afghanistan lovely country
Arif
yes
Umer
thanks
Arif
medical microbiology means study of microorganisms which are beneficial or harmful for the body. mostly which are studied under microscope by structure and shape appearance. e.g bacteria, viruses, bacteriophage, fungus hyphae and some blood and other body fluids parasites e.g plasmodium etc.
Rana
arif bhai gram staining in which we are given different dyes to the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasm and nucleus.e.g giemsa stain
Rana
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Omar baba crystal violet iodine 70% alcohol fuchicine or safranine after every step washing must be done
Rana
hello
Cristy
*Fuchsin stain
Cristy
*Safranin
Cristy
thanks
Ganesh

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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