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  • Identify two locations where you would likely find an ICD code.

Part 2

David’s doctor was concerned that his symptoms included prickling and itching at the site of the dog bite; these sensations could be early symptoms of rabies. Several tests are available to diagnose rabies in live patients, but no single antemortem test is adequate. The doctor decided to take samples of David’s blood, saliva, and skin for testing. The skin sample was taken from the nape of the neck (posterior side of the neck near the hairline). It was about 6-mm long and contained at least 10 hair follicles, including the superficial cutaneous nerve. An immunofluorescent staining technique was used on the skin biopsy specimen to detect rabies antibodies in the cutaneous nerves at the base of the hair follicles. A test was also performed on a serum sample from David’s blood to determine whether any antibodies for the rabies virus had been produced.

Meanwhile, the saliva sample was used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, a test that can detect the presence of viral nucleic acid (RNA). The blood tests came back positive for the presence of rabies virus antigen, prompting David’s doctor to prescribe prophylactic treatment. David is given a series of intramuscular injections of human rabies immunoglobulin along with a series of rabies vaccines.

  • Why does the immunofluorescent technique look for rabies antibodies rather than the rabies virus itself?
  • If David has contracted rabies, what is his prognosis?

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Key concepts and summary

  • Viruses are generally ultramicroscopic, typically from 20 nm to 900 nm in length. Some large viruses have been found.
  • Virions are acellular and consist of a nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, but not both, surrounded by a protein capsid . There may also be a phospholipid membrane surrounding the capsid.
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites.
  • Viruses are known to infect various types of cells found in plants, animals, fungi, protists, bacteria, and archaea. Viruses typically have limited host ranges and infect specific cell types.
  • Viruses may have helical , polyhedral, or complex shapes.
  • Classification of viruses is based on morphology, type of nucleic acid, host range, cell specificity, and enzymes carried within the virion.
  • Like other diseases, viral diseases are classified using ICD codes.

True/false

True or False: Scientists have identified viruses that are able to infect fungal cells.

True

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Fill in the blank

A virus that infects a bacterium is called a/an ___________________.

bacteriophage

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A/an __________ virus possesses characteristics of both a polyhedral and helical virus.

complex

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A virus containing only nucleic acid and a capsid is called a/an ___________________ virus or __________________ virus.

naked or nonenveloped

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The ____________ _____________ on the bacteriophage allow for binding to the bacterial cell.

tail fibers

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Short answer

Discuss the geometric differences among helical, polyhedral, and complex viruses.

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What was the meaning of the word “virus” in the 1880s and why was it used to describe the cause of tobacco mosaic disease?

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Questions & Answers

the product obtained by simplest conventional microbial process is
shridhan Reply
the product obtained by simplest conventional microbial fermentation process is
shridhan
curd
Mounika
beer cheese
Khushi
what is macrobiology
Esther Reply
study in microorganisms
Siva
what is lactose
adekanbi Reply
codomint marker such as RELP are useful for
Nandan Reply
how this process start
Radhika Reply
deffination of staining
Bhavanimangali Reply
It's using dies to differentiate microorganism
shalon
Staining can be defined as a process of using stains or dye to differentiate microorganisms in an environment or habitat.
adeolu
with the aid of a well labeled diagram describe the conducting system
Maridad Reply
what is cellular immunity
namugenyi Reply
Cellular Immunity. -Lymphocytes act against target cell. -Acts directly by killing infected cells.
abdinor
What are NK cells
Peter
Natural killer cells
Rahaba
what are Antigen determinant
mary
cellular immunity is the state where the lymphocytes destroy the infected or targeted cell
cynthia
any examples of oedema
cynthia
introduction of microbial diversity-1
Bhavanimangali Reply
List the type of micro organism arround us and how they can be seen and with what kind of instrument
clinton Reply
how is the arrangements of bacteria in bacilli
Vaidah Reply
Provide some examples of bacterial structures that might be used as antibiotic targets and explain why.
Vaidah
Coccobacilli, Club-Shaped bacilli, Bacilli with rounded ends, Fuilform bacilli, Bacilli with ends square.
Enoch
three main antibiotic targets in bacteria: The cell wall or membranes that surrounds the bacterial cell. The machineries that make the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The machinery that produce proteins
Rushikesh
The bacterial cell wall. Protein production. and DNA synthesis. Why, this is because most drugs (antibiotics) affects the cell wall of the bacteria, which makes the bacteria weak or susceptible in human body.
Enoch
UV rays affecting the..
Mali Reply
what is microbiology
Baba Reply
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell which includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and pathogenic protozoa.
Enoch
Microbiology is the branch of Life science which deals with scientific study of many Microorganisms.
Rushikesh
what is types of microbiology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Algology etc
Enoch
Virology, Immunology, Bacteriology, Algology, Mycology, Protoozology etc
Enoch
and what is mycology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Serology, Virology, Microbial Genetics, Parasitology, Bacteriology, Mycology, Molecular, Cell Biology, Agricultural, Water,Soil, Food Industrial ,Pharmaceutical, Applied, Environmental, Clinical, Medical,Marine Microbiology, Microbial Systematics, Etc, are & many types of Microbiology.
Rushikesh
study of fungi is called mycology
Munna
Mycology is the branch of Microbiology which deals with scientific study of Fungi.
Rushikesh
Study of microorganisms,which we can't see with our naked eye is called microbiology
Munna
Mycology is the scientific study of Fungi.
Enoch
virology is the study of viruses
Oppah
what is microbiology? microbiology is the study of small microorganisms that we can not with our naked eyes.
Leticia
what is taxonomical classification of microbiology
Bami
The algae, protozoa, slime moulds, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses ,are taxonomic classification of Microorganisms
Rushikesh
We have Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Viruses.
Enoch
microbiology is the study of microbes too small to be seen by naked eyes
Maridad
microbiology is a branch of biology which deals with study of smallest living microrganisms such as bacteria protozoa fungi and viruses
Chaitra
microbiology is the study of microorganisms which can't be seen by our naked eyes
Nakaweesi
Micro - Minute Bio - Life Logus - Study
Roshan
what is the meaning of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Devshree Reply
seven gram positive bacteria
Okocha Reply
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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