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Aside from formal systems of nomenclature, viruses are often informally grouped into categories based on chemistry, morphology, or other characteristics they share in common. Categories may include naked or enveloped structure, single-stranded (ss) or double-stranded (ds) DNA or ss or ds RNA genomes, segmented or nonsegmented genomes, and positive-strand (+) or negative-strand (−) RNA. For example, herpes viruses can be classified as a dsDNA enveloped virus; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a +ssRNA enveloped virus, and tobacco mosaic virus is a +ssRNA virus. Other characteristics such as host specificity, tissue specificity, capsid shape, and special genes or enzymes may also be used to describe groups of similar viruses. [link] lists some of the most common viruses that are human pathogens by genome type.

Common Pathogenic Viruses
Genome Family Example Virus Clinical Features
dsDNA, enveloped Poxviridae Orthopoxvirus Skin papules, pustules, lesions
Poxviridae Parapoxvirus Skin lesions
Herpesviridae Simplexvirus Cold sores, genital herpes, sexually transmitted disease
dsDNA, naked Adenoviridae Atadenovirus Respiratory infection (common cold)
Papillomaviridae Papillomavirus Genital warts, cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cancer
Reoviridae Reovirus Gastroenteritis severe diarrhea (stomach flu)
ssDNA, naked Parvoviridae Adeno-associated dependoparvovirus A Respiratory tract infection
Parvoviridae Adeno-associated dependoparvovirus B Respiratory tract infection
dsRNA, naked Reoviridae Rotavirus Gastroenteritis
+ssRNA, naked Picornaviridae Enterovirus C Poliomyelitis
Picornaviridae Rhinovirus Upper respiratory tract infection (common cold)
Picornaviridae Hepatovirus Hepatitis
+ssRNA, enveloped Togaviridae Alphavirus Encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever
Togaviridae Rubivirus Rubella
Retroviridae Lentivirus Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
−ssRNA, enveloped Filoviridae Zaire Ebolavirus Hemorrhagic fever
Orthomyxoviridae Influenzavirus A, B, C Flu
Rhabdoviridae Lyssavirus Rabies
  • What are the types of virus genomes?

Classification of viral diseases

While the ICTV has been tasked with the biological classification of viruses, it has also played an important role in the classification of diseases caused by viruses. To facilitate the tracking of virus-related human diseases, the ICTV has created classifications that link to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) , the standard taxonomy of disease that is maintained and updated by the World Health Organization (WHO). The ICD assigns an alphanumeric code of up to six characters to every type of viral infection, as well as all other types of diseases, medical conditions, and causes of death. This ICD code is used in conjunction with two other coding systems (the Current Procedural Terminology, and the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System) to categorize patient conditions for treatment and insurance reimbursement.

For example, when a patient seeks treatment for a viral infection, ICD codes are routinely used by clinicians to order laboratory tests and prescribe treatments specific to the virus suspected of causing the illness. This ICD code is then used by medical laboratories to identify tests that must be performed to confirm the diagnosis. The ICD code is used by the health-care management system to verify that all treatments and laboratory work performed are appropriate for the given virus. Medical coders use ICD codes to assign the proper code for procedures performed, and medical billers, in turn, use this information to process claims for reimbursement by insurance companies. Vital-records keepers use ICD codes to record cause of death on death certificates, and epidemiologists used ICD codes to calculate morbidity and mortality statistics.

Questions & Answers

write a note of microbiology with definition
Lucky Reply
Microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are too small to be visible with the naked eye. This includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa and algae, collectively known as 'microbes'.
si
write down the difference branches of microbiology
Lucky
Baccteriolog: the study of bactera. Immunology: the study of the immune system. It looks at the relationships between pathogens such as bacteria and viruses and their hosts. Mycology: the study of fungi, such as yeasts and molds. Nematology:the study of nematodes (roundworms).
Aashi
Bacteriology: the study of bacteria. Immunology: the study of the immune system. It looks at the relationships between pathogens such as bacteria and viruses and their hosts. Mycology: the study of fungi, such as yeasts and molds. Nematology: the study of nematodes (roundworms).
si
Parasitology :the study of parasites. Phycology: the study of algae. Protozoology : the study of protozoa, single-celled organisms like amoebae. Virology:the study of viruses.
Aashi
Parasitology: the study of parasites. Not all parasites are microorganisms, but many are. Protozoa and bacteria can be parasitic; the study of bacterial parasites is usually categorized as part of bacteriology. Phycology: the study of algae. Protozoology: the study of protozoa, single-celled organis
si
Virology: the study of viruses.
si
all bacterial cells have
Millie Reply
refamycin kills bacterial cell by acting on ...?
Yogesh Reply
monensin kills bacterial cell by acting on
Yogesh
genetic linkage cross over ratio ?
Yogesh
what is microbiology?
onuoha Reply
Hi!!! wants to know the meaning of microbiology
Christian Reply
Microbiology, study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of generally minute, simple life-forms that include bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms .
si
to study the life of microorganisms or microbes by knowing their characteristics types and relative species in lab
ayesha
Microbiology is simply the study of microbial world.
Shyamji
Microbiology is the branch of biology in which we study microorganisms those which cannot be seen with naked eye these are bacteria,fungi,viruses Protozoa etc.
Nisar
thanks for that information
Better
microbiology, is a study of microorganisms adiversegroup of generally, simple life,
Better
Thanks ever so much for the discussion.
Christian
Can anyone help with Organic Chemistry, and types?
Christian
which topic in organic chemistry
si
Introduction to organic chemistry.
Christian
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon, an element that forms strong chemical bonds to other carbon atoms as well as to many other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens. ... Many are composed of only carbon and hydrogen, collectively called hydrocarbons.
si
microbiology is the study of microorganisms like (bacteria ,viruses,fungi,protozoa and algae) their relationship to environment and their impact on environment .
TASAWAR
can one tell me what are reservoirs and their types with explanation.
onuoha
structure of protists
Rayyanu Reply
what is enzyme engineering
swati Reply
what is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Guirlaine Reply
Prokaryotes lack nucleus in their cells while eukaryotes have well defined nucleus in their cells
Ayo
Prokaryotes are organisms that consist of a single prokaryotic cell. Eukaryotic cells are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists. They range from 10–100 μm in diameter, and their DNA is contained within a membrane-bound nucleus. Eukaryotes are organisms containing eukaryotic cells.
Pratibha
The Day Jimmy"s Boa Ate the Wash by TRINKA HAKES NOBLE pictures by STEVEN KELLOGG
Alexia Reply
cytoplasmic membrane system in eukaryotes is called
Myerlyn Reply
I study in French,but I guess it's the same: we call it as the procaryotes "cytoplasme" but it's structure "cytosquelette" hope I helped.
BENNINI
hi bennini , I studied in English but I want to pursue in French .could u plz help me with French .thanks in advance
si
hi Si Yo, yes,of course how can I help you?
BENNINI
here can I download it where I could study it with relax dear
Irfan
hi
Ruth
ok
Francis
meaning of contagium vivum?
Royce Reply
explain transglutaminase cycle ?
Dilsath Reply
what a tropism in host
Khaliil Reply
HPV vaccine given to school children
Jayani Reply
Differentiation between electron, proton and neutron
Zainab Reply
proton .possitive charge electron . negative charge neutron . having no charge
Kifayat
proton positive charge. electron negative charge. And no charge of the neutron.
Saman
the nucleus is composed of electrons (-) charge and they turn around the Nucleon the Nucleon = neutron(no charge) + proton (+) a neutron can turn to a proton and vice versa (cuz they have the same mass=1)
BENNINI

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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