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The Zygomycota (zygomycetes) are mainly saprophytes with coenocytic hyphae and haploid nuclei. They use sporangiospores for asexual reproduction. The group name comes from the zygospores that they use for sexual reproduction ( [link] ), which have hard walls formed from the fusion of reproductive cells from two individuals. Zygomycetes are important for food science and as crop pathogens. One example is Rhizopus stolonifer ( [link] ), an important bread mold that also causes rice seedling blight. Mucor is a genus of fungi that can potentially cause necrotizing infections in humans, although most species are intolerant of temperatures found in mammalian bodies ( [link] ).

The Ascomycota include fungi that are used as food (edible mushrooms, morels, and truffles), others that are common causes of food spoilage (bread molds and plant pathogens), and still others that are human pathogens. Ascomycota may have septate hyphae and cup-shaped fruiting bodies called ascocarps . Some genera of Ascomycota use sexually produced ascospores as well as asexual spores called conidia , but sexual phases have not been discovered or described for others. Some produce an ascus containing ascospores within an ascocarp ( [link] ).

Examples of the Ascomycota include several bread molds and minor pathogens, as well as species capable of causing more serious mycoses. Species in the genus Aspergillus are important causes of allergy and infection, and are useful in research and in the production of certain fermented alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake . The fungus Aspergillus flavus , a contaminant of nuts and stored grains, produces an aflatoxin that is both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen. Neurospora crassa is of particular use in genetics research because the spores produced by meiosis are kept inside the ascus in a row that reflects the cell divisions that produced them, giving a direct view of segregation and assortment of genes ( [link] ). Penicillium produces the antibiotic penicillin ( [link] ).

Many species of ascomycetes are medically important. A large number of species in the genera Trichophyton , Microsporum , and Epidermophyton are dermatophytes , pathogenic fungi capable of causing skin infections such as athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm . Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus that can cause blastomycosis , a respiratory infection that, if left untreated, can become disseminated to other body sites, sometimes leading to death. Another important respiratory pathogen is the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum ( [link] ) , which is associated with birds and bats in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. Coccidioides immitis causes the serious lung disease Valley fever . Candida albicans , the most common cause of vaginal and other yeast infections, is also an ascomycete fungus; it is a part of the normal microbiota of the skin, intestine, genital tract, and ear ( [link] ). Ascomycetes also cause plant diseases, including ergot infections, Dutch elm disease, and powdery mildews.

Saccharomyces yeasts, including the baker’s yeast S. cerevisiae , are unicellular ascomycetes with haploid and diploid stages ( [link] ). This and other Saccharomyces species are used for brewing beer.

Questions & Answers

what is cell
Avi Reply
is unit of life
Kamaluddeen
Ok
mohamed
who is an industrial microbiologist
Cynthia Reply
I want to know the biochemical composition of bacteria
Josh Reply
It contains peptidoglcon, DNA nd RNA
Asiya
bacteriophage disadvantage
Momina Reply
disease due to __________ abnormalities are termed primary immunodeficiencies
Tayee Reply
Some primary immunodeficiencies are due to a defect of a single cellular or humoral component of the immune system.
Prince
Examples of primary immunodeficiencies include: chronic granulomatous disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective IgA deficiency etc
Prince
thank you
Nana
explain microbial mutation
Emerald
what is mutation
Cynthia Reply
alteration in genetic makeup
UDEME
Hi, I'm new here. I'm Bello Abdul Hakeem from Nigeria.
BELLO Reply
welcome on board
Kamaluddeen
Thanks brother I'm an undergraduate. I hope to study for MBBS.
BELLO
pls guys help me out
Linda
what is limitation of plate
Linda
limitation of plate load test . there are some that should be considered while performing load test which are given below, this test is usually performed on relatively similar plate ,usually 1 or 2 square foot area the reason is that the plate of greater are the economically not feasible
yemi
iam new here my name shafiu umar from Nigeria
Shafiu
thanks shafiu
gambo
how to differentiate Gram positive from Gram negative bacteria?
Faheem
by the cell membrane
Tim
with gram staining which has 4 steps
Freedom
Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity
rashida Reply
Toxicity
Ibrahim
write a short note on Algea
najaatu Reply
green minutes plants organisms that are produced in turf.
Prince
Algae is a kind of a photosynthetic organism, which is usually grown in the moist areas. These are usually the simple plants that grow near to the water bodies. It contains a kind of chlorophyll pigments that act as a primary coloring agent.
Avi
they are eukaryotic and most lived in fresh water. they are photosynthetic that's, they contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplast.
Prince
are bacteria important to man
just Reply
yes, depending on the type of bacteria .eg the normal florals, the latic acid batteries etc are important to man
Lois
I mean latic acid bacterial
Lois
I don't understand this topic
Jane Reply
what topic is that
Rose
sahi kon hai bhosri ke
saurabh Reply
define metabolism of carbohydrates with example
Thavasi Reply
what is sterilization a
Sani
the process of keep equipment free from bacteria
shar
is it only bacteria?
Lois
no undesirable fungi and contamination also.
Khushbu
what is streak plate method
Offikwu
what is the biofilm
Dimingu
metabolism is the sum of all the biochemical reaction required for energy generation and use of that energy to synthesize cell materials from small molecules in environment.
Alex
boclenia
Pooja
what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
e.coli
Sukhdeep
granulocytes are type of WBCs which contains granules in the cytoplasm
Owili
what is mutation
Cynthia
it is the interchange of genes from their normal sequence
Esther
is an heritable change of the base-pair sequence of genetic material
Elizabeth
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
e coli is the example of prokaryotes
Sukhdeep
archaea too
Noel

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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