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The Zygomycota (zygomycetes) are mainly saprophytes with coenocytic hyphae and haploid nuclei. They use sporangiospores for asexual reproduction. The group name comes from the zygospores that they use for sexual reproduction ( [link] ), which have hard walls formed from the fusion of reproductive cells from two individuals. Zygomycetes are important for food science and as crop pathogens. One example is Rhizopus stolonifer ( [link] ), an important bread mold that also causes rice seedling blight. Mucor is a genus of fungi that can potentially cause necrotizing infections in humans, although most species are intolerant of temperatures found in mammalian bodies ( [link] ).

The Ascomycota include fungi that are used as food (edible mushrooms, morels, and truffles), others that are common causes of food spoilage (bread molds and plant pathogens), and still others that are human pathogens. Ascomycota may have septate hyphae and cup-shaped fruiting bodies called ascocarps . Some genera of Ascomycota use sexually produced ascospores as well as asexual spores called conidia , but sexual phases have not been discovered or described for others. Some produce an ascus containing ascospores within an ascocarp ( [link] ).

Examples of the Ascomycota include several bread molds and minor pathogens, as well as species capable of causing more serious mycoses. Species in the genus Aspergillus are important causes of allergy and infection, and are useful in research and in the production of certain fermented alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake . The fungus Aspergillus flavus , a contaminant of nuts and stored grains, produces an aflatoxin that is both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen. Neurospora crassa is of particular use in genetics research because the spores produced by meiosis are kept inside the ascus in a row that reflects the cell divisions that produced them, giving a direct view of segregation and assortment of genes ( [link] ). Penicillium produces the antibiotic penicillin ( [link] ).

Many species of ascomycetes are medically important. A large number of species in the genera Trichophyton , Microsporum , and Epidermophyton are dermatophytes , pathogenic fungi capable of causing skin infections such as athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm . Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus that can cause blastomycosis , a respiratory infection that, if left untreated, can become disseminated to other body sites, sometimes leading to death. Another important respiratory pathogen is the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum ( [link] ) , which is associated with birds and bats in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. Coccidioides immitis causes the serious lung disease Valley fever . Candida albicans , the most common cause of vaginal and other yeast infections, is also an ascomycete fungus; it is a part of the normal microbiota of the skin, intestine, genital tract, and ear ( [link] ). Ascomycetes also cause plant diseases, including ergot infections, Dutch elm disease, and powdery mildews.

Saccharomyces yeasts, including the baker’s yeast S. cerevisiae , are unicellular ascomycetes with haploid and diploid stages ( [link] ). This and other Saccharomyces species are used for brewing beer.

Questions & Answers

what a tropism in host
Khaliil Reply
HPV vaccine given to school children
Jayani Reply
Differentiation between electron, proton and neutron
Zainab Reply
proton .possitive charge electron . negative charge neutron . having no charge
Kifayat
proton positive charge. electron negative charge. And no charge of the neutron.
Saman
the nucleus is composed of electrons (-) charge and they turn around the Nucleon the Nucleon = neutron(no charge) + proton (+) a neutron can turn to a proton and vice versa (cuz they have the same mass=1)
BENNINI
what are the roles of microorganisms in human being
Buhari Reply
some causes disease, others are not disease causing
Clark
they're necessary in our digestive system+the skin,everywhere actually the number of them in the human body alone is higher(by millions)than the number of humans cells,they're indispensable in the food industry,others are fundamental to make medicines and more,what exactly are you asking about ?
BENNINI
What are the natural occurring elements found in organisms on earth?
Otu Reply
some of the naturally occurring elements found in organisms are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen
Yashi
thanks
Mariam
some of them are carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur
Jamal
what is Zika virus?
Somali Reply
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. 
Cumar
in pregnancy it can cause the unborn child's head to underdevelop so that it does not grow along with the rest of the body
Bethany
intracellular vesicles are found in
Akshay Reply
how do i report widal slide results
Isaac Reply
how food can be used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
Ashi Reply
what is the importance of understanding chemistry in the field of microbiology and food technology?
Charmaine Reply
What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
Abia Reply
main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
Iqra
prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
Yashi
what s anatomy
jane Reply
its mean body structure, function, and systems
gazi
study of internal structure of living things
Falere
anatomy is the study structure of the made human
isir
anotomy is the actual study of body internally and externally Which include how itis made. for what and what is need of this
Iqra
la science anatomie c'est la science qui nous aide à étudier l'homme
Baraka
okay
Baraka
Ancestor are they real
Rapheal Reply
yes of course
David
yes please
Clark
50 50, depending on the accuracy of the clan records.
Vincent
okay
Baraka
Why protist is not a kingdom of Linnaeus 'S taxonomy?
Neha Reply
I dont know
Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
Lad
name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
Pohor
what is microbiology
Baraka
the study of large living organisms
Pratibha
the study of organisms which are micro in range
Vency
what is autoclaving?
Yashi
process for sterilization
Vency
is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
Clark
what is difference between hot air oven and autoclave as they both are used for sterilization ?
Vency
autoclave basically do moist heat sterilization while hot air oven do sterilization by dry heat.....
Yashi
what is the microbe
HUSSAIN
which method out of these two is best?
Yashi
why human have microbe
HUSSAIN
Hi
Sadam
hi to all
Sadam
depends on what to sterilize
Vency
microbes
Md
what is knowledge
HUSSAIN
well idea
Daniel

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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