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Drawing of bats in an attic. Fungal body is shown in the guano. A micrograph of the fungus shows hyphae (long strands) withc spheres labeled conidia. The life cycle shows a person inhaling spores which then travel to the lungs and divide into a yeast form. They then travel to the lymph and blood.
Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that grows in soil exposed to bird feces or bat feces (guano) (top left). It can change forms to survive at different temperatures. In the outdoors, it typically grows as a mycelium (as shown in the micrograph, bottom left), but when the spores are inhaled (right), it responds to the high internal temperature of the body (37 °C [98.6 °F]) by turning into a yeast that can multiply in the lungs, causing the chronic lung disease histoplasmosis. (credit: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

There are notable unique features in fungal cell walls and membranes. Fungal cell walls contain chitin , as opposed to the cellulose found in the cell walls of plants and many protists. Additionally, whereas animals have cholesterol in their cell membranes, fungal cell membranes have different sterols called ergosterols . Ergosterols are often exploited as targets for antifungal drugs.

Fungal life cycles are unique and complex. Fungi reproduce sexually either through cross- or self-fertilization. Haploid fungi form hyphae that have gametes at the tips. Two different mating types (represented as “+ type” and “– type”) are involved. The cytoplasms of the + and – type gametes fuse (in an event called plasmogamy), producing a cell with two distinct nuclei (a dikaryotic cell). Later, the nuclei fuse (in an event called karyogamy ) to create a diploid zygote. The zygote undergoes meiosis to form spores that germinate to start the haploid stage, which eventually creates more haploid mycelia ( [link] ). Depending on the taxonomic group, these sexually produced spores are known as zygospores (in Zygomycota), ascospores (in Ascomycota), or basidiospores (in Basidiomycota) ( [link] ).

Fungi may also exhibit asexual reproduction by mitosis, mitosis with budding, fragmentation of hyphae, and formation of asexual spores by mitosis. These spores are specialized cells that, depending on the organism, may have unique characteristics for survival, reproduction, and dispersal. Fungi exhibit several types of asexual spores and these can be important in classification.

Zygomycete life cycle. The mycelia can undergo asexual reproduction by forming spores via mitosis. The spores then form mycelia by germination. The haploid spores can also undergo sexual reproduction. The first step is germination when mycelia form. If the two mating types (+ and -) are in close proximity, extensions called gametangia form between them. Next is plasmogamy. This is the fusion between the + and – mating types resulting in a zygosporangium with multiple haploid nucei. The zygosporangiom forms a thick, protective coat. Next the nuclei fuse to form a zygote with multiple diploid nuclei in karyogamy. This forms a diploid zygote. Next is mitosis and germination where the sporangium grows on a  short stalk and the haploid spores are formed inside. The spores are released in germination and we are back to the spore stage of the life cycle.
Zygomycetes have sexual and asexual life cycles. In the sexual life cycle, + and – mating types conjugate to form a zygosporangium.
a) A micrograph of long strands labeled hyphae and a sphere (labeled sporangium) on the end of one of the long strands. B) A photograph of bread mold. The white fuzz has black dots labeled sporangia.
These images show asexually produced spores. (a) This brightfield micrograph shows the release of spores from a sporangium at the end of a hypha called a sporangiophore. The organism is a Mucor sp. fungus, a mold often found indoors. (b) Sporangia grow at the ends of stalks, which appear as the white fuzz seen on this bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer . The tips of bread mold are the dark, spore-containing sporangia. (credit a: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit b right: modification of work by “Andrew”/Flickr)
  • Is a dimorphic fungus a yeast or a mold? Explain.

Fungal diversity

The fungi are very diverse, comprising seven major groups. Not all of the seven groups contain pathogens. Some of these groups are generally associated with plants and include plant pathogens. For example, Urediniomycetes and Ustilagomycetes include the plant rusts and smuts , respectively. These form reddish or dark masses, respectively, on plants as rusts (red) or smuts (dark). Some species have substantial economic impact because of their ability to reduce crop yields. Glomeromycota includes the mycorrhizal fungi , important symbionts with plant roots that can promote plant growth by acting like an extended root system. The Glomeromycota are obligate symbionts, meaning that they can only survive when associated with plant roots; the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant and the plant benefits from the increased ability to take up nutrients and minerals from the soil. The Chytridiomycetes ( chytrids ) are small fungi, but are extremely ecologically important. Chytrids are generally aquatic and have flagellated, motile gametes; specific types are implicated in amphibian declines around the world. Because of their medical importance, we will focus on Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Microsporidia. [link] summarizes the characteristics of these medically important groups of fungi.

Questions & Answers

what is fermentation example ?
Sonal Reply
is proceess in which an agent couses of an oganic substances breakdown into simpler substance,especially in aneorobic breakdown of suger into alcohol.
is it better to study microbiology and then medicine it makes no difference to go directly to medicine?
Jessee Reply
Dray's mathdme cell wall konse color k hote he
Jinal Reply
what is dray's mathdme cell wall
I confused. please help me
just confused
l don't understand it please explain it for me.
Karen Reply
epitopes are present on the surface of
Rohit Reply
at the tip of variable region on the antibody...where antigen and antibody binding sites combine...
The term that is used refer to moving microbes under a microscope are referred to as?
Lee Reply
Members of the genus Neisseria cause which of the folowing human diseases?
Farah Reply
genital infections
4. Which of the following specimens should not be refrigerated? a. Urine b. Urogenital swab
Zahraa Reply
Details about McConkey agar
what is bacteria
anamika Reply
a member of large number of unicellular microorganism which have cell wall but lack of cell organelles an oranised nucleus including somewhat can cause disease
Bacteria are usually composed of one cell onl to that are neither plants nor animals, microscopic, that may cause diseases or may be beneficial(in gut)... it depends upon their weapons. Nearly all animal life is dependent on Bacteria for their survival
what factor make bacteria colony large and how could we sterlise it in large scale
nutrient concentration temp gaseous conc ph ion or salt concentration mositure condition factors contribute to make large colony. by autoclaving we will sterilize bactetia
Colony is actually visible growth of Bacteria that is as a result of suitable environment for growth i.e optimal conditions for growth, temperature, moisture etc. there're many methods to get rid of bacteria. If We stop giving them optimal conditions for living Bacteria will die soon .
what's the difference between an antigen and a pathogen?
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease in other organisms whereas Antigen is a part of a pathogen that triggers the immune response..
so it is the antigen that dendritic cells present to the T cells and not the pathogen itself?
no no antigen are the west product or part of the pathogen. in such case bacteria it self fight with over immune response & in another case bacteria release antigens
& other antigen like pollan grain, dust particles etc.....
pathogen are microbes that can infect the body and causw illness....antigens are the part of pathogens that alert the body to an infection
antigen is a part of blood and pathogen is foreign particle which causes diseases
antigen could be non microorganism.... where as pathogen is mixroorganism
a pathogen is a disease causing organism while an antigen is a protein in the white blood cells which combats pathogens.
what type of widal test
sobhit Reply
this test determine for typhoid in this test if H,O antigen are present that indicate the positive test bac. are salmonella typhy
what h.o denotes
o: body of bacteria, h: flagellate
Explain Mould
Chinenye Reply
Explain mycoses and it's classification
why do we have hiccups?
Manisha Reply
shakey diaphragm
The antibody binding site is formed primarily by:
Asalla Reply
How many types of MICROORGANISMS do we have?
Hope Reply
Hello friends
microorganisms are divided into seven type Bacteria archaea protozoa algae fungi virus and multicellular animal parasites

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