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a) A small diagram of the cell highlighting the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleus is a large sphere in the cell and the endoplasmic reticulum is a series of webbed membranes just outside the nucleus. B) A micrograph showing these same structures. Outside the nuclear envelope are many lines labeled rough endoplasmic reticulum. A smaller set of lines is labeled mitochondrion overlaying part of the RER.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes for the synthesis of membrane proteins (which give it its rough appearance).

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus was discovered within the endomembrane system in 1898 by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi (1843–1926), who developed a novel staining technique that showed stacked membrane structures within the cells of Plasmodium , the causative agent of malaria. The Golgi apparatus is composed of a series of membranous disks called dictyosomes, each having a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together ( [link] ).

Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus modify lipids and proteins transported from the ER to the Golgi, often adding carbohydrate components to them, producing glycolipids, glycoproteins, or proteoglycans. Glycolipids and glycoproteins are often inserted into the plasma membrane and are important for signal recognition by other cells or infectious particles. Different types of cells can be distinguished from one another by the structure and arrangement of the glycolipids and glycoproteins contained in their plasma membranes. These glycolipids and glycoproteins commonly also serve as cell surface receptors.

Transport vesicles leaving the ER fuse with a Golgi apparatus on its receiving, or cis , face. The proteins are processed within the Golgi apparatus, and then additional transport vesicles containing the modified proteins and lipids pinch off from the Golgi apparatus on its outgoing, or trans , face. These outgoing vesicles move to and fuse with the plasma membrane or the membrane of other organelles.

Exocytosis is the process by which secretory vesicles (spherical membranous sacs) release their contents to the cell’s exterior ( [link] ). All cells have constitutive secretory pathways in which secretory vesicles transport soluble proteins that are released from the cell continually (constitutively). Certain specialized cells also have regulated secretory pathways , which are used to store soluble proteins in secretory vesicles. Regulated secretion involves substances that are only released in response to certain events or signals. For example, certain cells of the human immune system (e.g., mast cells) secrete histamine in response to the presence of foreign objects or pathogens in the body. Histamine is a compound that triggers various mechanisms used by the immune system to eliminate pathogens.

A small diagram of the cell outlining the Golgi complex which is a series of stacked membranes in the cell. A more detailed diagram shows the stacked membranes labeled cisternae and the inner regions of the stacks labeled lumen. Small spheres on the top are show transport vesicles from ER fuse with the cis face of the golgi. Small spheres on the bottom show newly formed secretory vesicles emerging from the trans face of the golgi. A micrograph shows the golgi in the cell as a stack of lines forming a semi-circle.
A transmission electron micrograph (left) of a Golgi apparatus in a white blood cell. The illustration (right) shows the cup-shaped, stacked disks and several transport vesicles. The Golgi apparatus modifies lipids and proteins, producing glycolipids and glycoproteins, respectively, which are commonly inserted into the plasma membrane.


In the 1960s, Belgian scientist Christian de Duve (1917–2013) discovered lysosomes , membrane-bound organelles of the endomembrane system that contain digestive enzymes. Certain types of eukaryotic cells use lysosomes to break down various particles, such as food, damaged organelles or cellular debris, microorganisms, or immune complexes. Compartmentalization of the digestive enzymes within the lysosome allows the cell to efficiently digest matter without harming the cytoplasmic components of the cell.

Questions & Answers

what is parasitic helminths
Sadiya Reply
list three categories of symbiotic relationships.
mary Reply
what's the difference between microbial intoxication and infectious diseases
dranimva Reply
weighing balance is needed in lab of microbiology for weighing?
amna Reply
It is mainly used for media preparation and product testing purpose.
thank you for your joining
what is microbiology
Shamsuddeen Reply
study of living organisms that are too small to be visible with naked eye
microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular(single cell), multicellular( cell colony), or acellular (lacking cell).
is the word Atypical or a typical bacteria. .am confused pliz help
typical bacteria
okay thank you what does that mean
atypical means that it has some characters from bacteria not all characters ...but tybical means that it has all the characters that bacteria have
thank you Zulpha
some examples please
thank you Reham
1) typical bacteria contain a cell wall whereas atypical bacteria usually do not contain a cell . 2) typical bacteria can be either Gram-positive or Gram-negative while atypical bacteria remain colorless with Gram staining. 3) cells of typical bacteria are large ,while cells of the atypical small
Example of atypical : Mycoplasma pneumoniae , chlamydophila pneumoniae , legionella
what is micro biology
Jauharah Reply
is the study of organisms which can't be viewed by our necked eyes
Because it preexisting causing secondary infection after collateral damage of normal microbota
Rafaa Reply
combinations of drugs that can't be taken together and why
Grace Reply
Antagonism: the combined action is less than that of the more effective agent when used alone). All these effects may be observed in vitro (particularly in terms of bactericidal rate) and in vivo والله اعلم
....fermentros have 1-15litre capacity
AMAR Reply
which of the following microorganisms are classified as eukaryotic?
Semugab Reply
how do I see the list?
what are the choices?
dear tell us the choices
mr semugab give us the list please
what are the new discoveries of microorganisms
Ezibon Reply
understanding of contributed to attempts to treat contain disease
james Reply
what is a bacteria
ROSE Reply
yes tell us
a bacteria is the largest living organisms on the planet Earth
oh, sure. we have also one big here nearby!
Bacteria is a large group of single-cell microorganisms. some causes infections and disease in animals and humans..
do you mean procariots?
Types of Respiratory diseases Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Asthma, Lung cancer, Emphysema.
Enoch Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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