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Ribosomes

Ribosomes found in eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts have 70S ribosomes—the same size as prokaryotic ribosomes. However, nonorganelle-associated ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are 80S ribosomes , composed of a 40S small subunit and a 60S large subunit. In terms of size and composition, this makes them distinct from the ribosomes of prokaryotic cells.

The two types of nonorganelle-associated eukaryotic ribosomes are defined by their location in the cell: free ribosomes and membrane-bound ribosomes . Free ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm and serve to synthesize water-soluble proteins; membrane-bound ribosomes are found attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and make proteins for insertion into the cell membrane or proteins destined for export from the cell.

The differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes are clinically relevant because certain antibiotic drugs are designed to target one or the other. For example, cycloheximide targets eukaryotic action, whereas chloramphenicol targets prokaryotic ribosomes. A.E. Barnhill, M.T. Brewer, S.A. Carlson. “Adverse Effects of Antimicrobials via Predictable or Idiosyncratic Inhibition of Host Mitochondrial Components.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56 no. 8 (2012):4046–4051. Since human cells are eukaryotic, they generally are not harmed by antibiotics that destroy the prokaryotic ribosomes in bacteria. However, sometimes negative side effects may occur because mitochondria in human cells contain prokaryotic ribosomes.

Endomembrane system

The endomembrane system , unique to eukaryotic cells, is a series of membranous tubules, sacs, and flattened disks that synthesize many cell components and move materials around within the cell ( [link] ). Because of their larger cell size, eukaryotic cells require this system to transport materials that cannot be dispersed by diffusion alone. The endomembrane system comprises several organelles and connections between them, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles.

A diagram showing the nucleus. A sphere in the center of the nucleus is labeled nucleolus. Lines within the nucleus are labeled chromatin. The fluid of the nucleus is labeled nucleoplasm. The outer region just inside the nuclear envelope is labeled nuclear lamina. The outside of the nucleus is labeled nuclear envelop and pores in the envelope are labeled nuclear pores.  The nuclear envelope is continuous with and becomes the endoplasmic reticulum; a webbing of membranes outside the nucleus. Regions of the endoplasmic reticulum with dots are labeled rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and regions without dots are labeled smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The RER and SER are continuous with each other.
The endomembrane system is composed of a series of membranous intracellular structures that facilitate movement of materials throughout the cell and to the cell membrane.

Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected array of tubules and cisternae (flattened sacs) with a single lipid bilayer ( [link] ). The spaces inside of the cisternae are called lumen of the ER. There are two types of ER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) . These two different types of ER are sites for the synthesis of distinctly different types of molecules. RER is studded with ribosomes bound on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. These ribosomes make proteins destined for the plasma membrane ( [link] ). Following synthesis, these proteins are inserted into the membrane of the RER. Small sacs of the RER containing these newly synthesized proteins then bud off as transport vesicles and move either to the Golgi apparatus for further processing, directly to the plasma membrane, to the membrane of another organelle, or out of the cell. Transport vesicles are single-lipid, bilayer, membranous spheres with hollow interiors that carry molecules. SER does not have ribosomes and, therefore, appears “smooth.” It is involved in biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of toxic compounds within the cell.

Questions & Answers

full life cycle of plasmodium parasite
Emmah Reply
what are ways of handling sharps
namugenyi Reply
never recap or bend a sharp objects
benita
describe the process of platelet formation
Joy Reply
what is parasitic helminths
Sadiya Reply
list three categories of symbiotic relationships.
mary Reply
what's the difference between microbial intoxication and infectious diseases
dranimva Reply
microbial intoxication results when a person ingests a toxin or a poisonous substance that has been produced by a microbe while infectious disease results when a pathogen colonize the body and subsequently cause disease.
mary
weighing balance is needed in lab of microbiology for weighing?
amna Reply
It is mainly used for media preparation and product testing purpose.
Nakaweesi
thank you for your joining
nuur
what is microbiology
Shamsuddeen Reply
study of living organisms that are too small to be visible with naked eye
Marah
yes
Ahmed
microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular(single cell), multicellular( cell colony), or acellular (lacking cell).
munachimso
is the word Atypical or a typical bacteria. .am confused pliz help
MUWANGUZI Reply
typical bacteria
Zulpha
okay thank you what does that mean
MUWANGUZI
atypical means that it has some characters from bacteria not all characters ...but tybical means that it has all the characters that bacteria have
Reham
thank you Zulpha
MUWANGUZI
some examples please
MUWANGUZI
thank you Reham
MUWANGUZI
1) typical bacteria contain a cell wall whereas atypical bacteria usually do not contain a cell . 2) typical bacteria can be either Gram-positive or Gram-negative while atypical bacteria remain colorless with Gram staining. 3) cells of typical bacteria are large ,while cells of the atypical small
Marah
Example of atypical : Mycoplasma pneumoniae , chlamydophila pneumoniae , legionella
Marah
what is micro biology
Jauharah Reply
is the study of organisms which can't be viewed by our necked eyes
Egumat
Because it preexisting causing secondary infection after collateral damage of normal microbota
Rafaa Reply
combinations of drugs that can't be taken together and why
Grace Reply
Antagonism: the combined action is less than that of the more effective agent when used alone). All these effects may be observed in vitro (particularly in terms of bactericidal rate) and in vivo والله اعلم
Lenovo
....fermentros have 1-15litre capacity
AMAR Reply
which of the following microorganisms are classified as eukaryotic?
Semugab Reply
how do I see the list?
Melissa
what are the choices?
Melissa
dear tell us the choices
MUWANGUZI
mr semugab give us the list please
Nambi
Fungi
munachimso
what are the new discoveries of microorganisms
Ezibon Reply
bacteriology,viriology,micrology
Egumat

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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