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Learning objectives

  • Identify common viral pathogens that cause infections of the circulatory and lymphatic systems
  • Compare the major characteristics of specific viral diseases affecting the circulatory and lymphatic systems

Viral pathogens of the circulatory system vary tremendously both in their virulence and distribution worldwide. Some of these pathogens are practically global in their distribution. Fortunately, the most ubiquitous viruses tend to produce the mildest forms of disease. In the majority of cases, those infected remain asymptomatic. On the other hand, other viruses are associated with life-threatening diseases that have impacted human history.

Infectious mononucleosis and burkitt lymphoma

Human herpesvirus 4, also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), has been associated with a variety of human diseases, such as mononucleosis and Burkitt lymphoma. Exposure to the human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) is widespread and nearly all people have been exposed at some time in their childhood, as evidenced by serological tests on populations. The virus primarily resides within B lymphocyte s and, like all herpes viruses, can remain dormant in a latent state for a long time.

When uninfected young adults are exposed to EBV, they may experience infectious mononucleosis . The virus is mainly spread through contact with body fluids (e.g., saliva, blood, and semen). The main symptoms include pharyngitis, fever, fatigue, and lymph node swelling. Abdominal pain may also occur as a result of spleen and liver enlargement in the second or third week of infection. The disease typically is self-limiting after about a month. The main symptom, extreme fatigue, can continue for several months, however. Complications in immunocompetent patients are rare but can include jaundice, anemia, and possible rupture of the spleen caused by enlargement.

In patients with malaria or HIV , Epstein-Barr virus can lead to a fast-growing malignant cancer known as Burkitt lymphoma ( [link] ). This condition is a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that produces solid tumors chiefly consisting of aberrant B cells. Burkitt lymphoma is more common in Africa, where prevalence of HIV and malaria is high, and it more frequently afflicts children. Repeated episodes of viremia caused by reactivation of the virus are common in immunocompromised individuals. In some patients with AIDS, EBV may induce the formation of malignant B-cell lymphomas or oral hairy leukoplakia. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma primarily occurs in patients with HIV. HIV infection, similar to malaria, leads to polyclonal B-cell activation and permits poorly controlled proliferation of EBV + B cells, leading to the formation of lymphomas.

Infectious mononucleosis is typically diagnosed based on the initial clinical symptoms and a test for antibodies to EBV-associated antigens. Because the disease is self-limiting, antiviral treatments are rare for mononucleosis. Cases of Burkitt lymphoma are diagnosed from a biopsy specimen from a lymph node or tissue from a suspected tumor. Staging of the cancer includes computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and cytologic and histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens. Because the tumors grow so rapidly, staging studies must be expedited and treatment must be initiated promptly. An intensive alternating regimen of cyclophosphamide , vincristine , doxorubicin , methotrexate , ifosfamide , etoposide , and cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC) plus rituximab results in a cure rate greater than 90% for children and adults.

Questions & Answers

i wante to study medicine in university so how i should prepare my self
Lissa Reply
microorganism functions
NUHU Reply
how does the helicobacteri pylori affect the stomach walls?
Erick Reply
hi
Allan
Hlo
SUMIT
hi
Umar
hi
Umar
when the stomach is been affected with helicobacteria what are the preventive measure to be considered to ensure specific outcome?
Umar
yeah
Ayan
what is microbiology
vijay Reply
microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms .microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye ex-bacteria fungi
Yashkin
a branch of biological science concerned with organisms that can not be observed with a naked eye
Mooya
what are the types of granulocytes and explain
lord
polymorpho nuclear leukocyte, known as granulocyte are divide into three,1-polymorpho eosinophil 2-polymorpho basophil 3-polymorpho neutrophil
Musa
microbiology is scientific study of microorganism which can nt be seen by naked eye,for example bacteria,viruses, protozoa ad fungi.
Emma
microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms
Atia
I want to know more about sample collection on the field
Ama Reply
blood collection and urinarysis
Lizzy
2143
Lizzy
yes
Lizzy
In the periodic table the number on the upper left hand side is what
Aurelia Reply
Hydrogen
Tob
am not talking about the elements
Aurelia
Is it the atomic number or the mass number
Aurelia
hologen
Usman
differences between acid fast and non acid fast bacilli
ANTHONY Reply
acid fast have cell wall that holds to carbol fuschin stain while non acid fast doesn't have. it readily releases out the primary stain the carbol fuschin.
LAFIA
where do I post a question that isn't related to that topic
eklectc
hi everyone
kennedy
hello
Olivia
for sure, this question is not related to the topic.
LAFIA
can someone explain the process of glycolysis and the electron transport chain? I'm so freakin lost. it loses carbons, gains hydroxyls, gains, loses Hydrogens....ugh it's like a foreign language to me! or direct me to a youTube video or something that will make this seem easier to concept?
eklectc
it's a loaded question, sorry!
eklectc
why is DNA a genetic material
Mcbeth Reply
DNA is genetic material because it contains chromosome contains the traits which includes characters and behavioral characteristics
chima
why is it difficulty to classfy protista
Tanaka
Good
Eddy
what is infection prevention
Muhammed Reply
good hygiene
Dhaqan
way of preventing disease causing germs
henry
maintenance of sterilization
Pooja
h
Faustina
describe the components of the epidemiology triangle
Muhammed Reply
Hai
Nantongo
hii
Md
where from you
Md
i am Indian
Md
you
Md
Hello friend
effiong
How are you people doing
effiong
أ‌) Host factor ب) pathogen ج) environment
Widad
Hello
Kofi
Hi
Widad
hey hi
kalai
The epidemiologic triangle is made up of three parts: agent, host and environment
Princess
please can a microbiologist will work at hospital
Usman
what are the fluids used in biochemistry Lab used to diagnose diseases
Jb Reply
fadumo qule a gemil3
fadumo Reply
Faadum mahamud disease micro biology
fadumo
makuway diinkaraan suaalo
fadumo
history of microbiology
Balqees Reply
Penicillin is caused by what microorganism
Balqees
Penicillin is caused by what microorganism
Balqees
penicillium notatum
Pooja
M sorry I mean penicillin is caused by what Fungi
Balqees
penicillium fungi
Pooja
when I finish with my bsc in microbiology where wil I work
Usman
Why can we see ourselves in a mirror?
Usman
mention 5 characteristics of prokaryotic cell and also 5 characteristics of euryotic cell
Grace Reply
PROKARYOTES _ does not have nucleus _does not have membrane bound organels like eukaryotes -does not have endoplasmic reticulum _does not have a mitchochondrion _it have plasmid instead of chromosome EUKARYOTE S _have true nucleus _have all membrane bound organels _have mitochondria have
Pooja
continuation _have endoplasmic reticulum _have chromosomes does not have plasmid
Pooja
antigenisity define
kalai
explanation of spores
nahida Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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