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Learning objectives

  • Identify the most common viruses that cause infections of the reproductive system
  • Compare the major characteristics of specific viral diseases affecting the reproductive system

Several viruses can cause serious problems for the human reproductive system. Most of these viral infections are incurable, increasing the risk of persistent sexual transmission. In addition, such viral infections are very common in the United States. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI in the country, with an estimated prevalence of 79.1 million infections in 2008; herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the next most prevalent STI at 24.1 million infections. Catherine Lindsey Satterwhite, Elizabeth Torrone, Elissa Meites, Eileen F. Dunne, Reena Mahajan, M. Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, John Su, Fujie Xu, and Hillard Weinstock. “Sexually Transmitted Infections Among US Women and Men: Prevalence and Incidence Estimates, 2008.” Sexually Transmitted Diseases 40, no. 3 (2013): 187–193. In this section, we will examine these and other major viral infections of the reproductive system.

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a common condition caused by the herpes simplex virus ( [link] ), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is classified into two distinct types. Herpes simplex virus has several virulence factors, including infected cell protein (ICP) 34.5, which helps in replication and inhibits the maturation of dendritic cells as a mechanism of avoiding elimination by the immune system. In addition, surface glycoproteins on the viral envelope promote the coating of herpes simplex virus with antibodies and complement factors, allowing the virus to appear as “self” and prevent immune system activation and elimination.

There are two herpes simplex virus types. While herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is generally associated with oral lesions like cold sores or fever blisters (see Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes ), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is usually associated with genital herpes. However, both viruses can infect either location as well as other parts of the body. Oral-genital contact can spread either virus from the mouth to the genital region or vice versa.

Micrograph of round structures.
Virions of the herpes simplex virus are shown here in this transmission electron micrograph. (credit: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Many infected individuals do not develop symptoms, and thus do not realize that they carry the virus. However, in some infected individuals, fever, chills, malaise, swollen lymph nodes, and pain precede the development of fluid-filled vesicles that may be irritating and uncomfortable. When these vesicles burst, they release infectious fluid and allow transmission of HSV. In addition, open herpes lesions can increase the risk of spreading or acquiring HIV.

In men, the herpes lesions typically develop on the penis and may be accompanied by a watery discharge. In women, the vesicles develop most commonly on the vulva, but may also develop on the vagina or cervix ( [link] ). The symptoms are typically mild, although the lesions may be irritating or accompanied by urinary discomfort. Use of condoms may not always be an effective means of preventing transmission of genital herpes since the lesions can occur on areas other than the genitals.

Questions & Answers

Types of micro organisms
Jennifer Reply
Who discovered plant and animal cell
Jennifer
Robert Hooke
Martha
Father of microbiology
Jennifer Reply
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Satarupa
Why are mitochondria and chloroplasts unable to multiply outside of a host cell?
Iqra Reply
iqra mitochondria arises from the division of existing mitochondria and they are fused together. they move around inside the cell with the interactions of the cytoskeleton that's why mitochondria unable to multiply outside the host cells chloroplasts has its own separate DNA from the plant cell.
Rana
short not on medical microbiology
Massah Reply
Hy
Iqra
hope you fine
Arif
love you
Arif
Assalamualaikum
Suhaib
arai yeh micro kai sth kis ko love hua
Umer
icrobiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses
Suhaib
iqra iqbal
Arif
What is gram syaining?
Arif
to differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacty
Umer
True
Arif
where you are from
Arif
i m frm sopore..kashmir
Umer
i m frm baramulla .. Kashmir
Umer
and u
Umer
umer
Arif
and i m from afghanistan lovely country
Arif
yes
Umer
thanks
Arif
medical microbiology means study of microorganisms which are beneficial or harmful for the body. mostly which are studied under microscope by structure and shape appearance. e.g bacteria, viruses, bacteriophage, fungus hyphae and some blood and other body fluids parasites e.g plasmodium etc.
Rana
arif bhai gram staining in which we are given different dyes to the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasm and nucleus.e.g giemsa stain
Rana
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Omar baba crystal violet iodine 70% alcohol fuchicine or safranine after every step washing must be done
Rana
hello
Cristy
*Fuchsin stain
Cristy
*Safranin
Cristy
thanks
Ganesh
difference between epidermophyton trichophyton and microsporum
Ankita Reply
plz answer the question
Iqra
epidermophyton type of fungi causes superficial and cutaneous mycoses trichophyton is also fungi type including parasitic varieties causes dermatophytosis microsporum is also type of fungi causes dermatophytosis.
Rana
ok
Iqra
Is this app perfect for preparation of exam?
Ankita
Ankita I totally disagree with your respected opinion. it's just minor helpful
Rana
disagree by me ?
Ankita
what is infectious
Fred Reply
Many poeple are die due to covid-19 virus
AMINU Reply
they become sick due to millions bacteria, fungi and some insects that make plants as their host.
charles Reply
what are microbes and what are their effects to humans
charles Reply
they are organism that cannot be seen with the naked eye
Angel
classify microorganisms.
Satarupa Reply
protozoa' bacteria' virus' algai' archea'
Cabdifitaax
protozoa
Ayesha
Thank you
Satarupa
bacteria,fungi, protozoa and virus
Angel
mutant having a requirement for a certain growth factor is called a(n)
Purushoth Reply
what is atome
Marie Reply
is the smallest part of any material that cannot be broken up by chemical means
Feisal
How does forest tree become sick
Emmanuel
Aseptate hyphae are seen in
lab Reply
yes
Ahmed
w
Ahmed
hello
Apdikrim
what is ADT
Feisal
hii
Salman
how does this work bro
Feisal
CHEMISTRY
Apdikrim
biology
Ahmed
I.m student
Ahmed
I.m question what is difference between arthropod and insect?
Ahmed
Arthropod is a large division of jointed-foot Invertebrates such as Insects, centipedes and others so Insect is a part of the division or the phylum
hilina
thanks
Ahmed
ur welcome
hilina
describe binary fission
Queen Reply
in which parent cell devides into two daughter cells
Iqra
single parent cell
Tean
who is the father of microbiology
Mary Reply
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , he is father of microbiology and Louis Pasteur is father of modern microbioloy.
Arshad
Anton van leeuwenhoek ( He descovered bacteria in 1679)
Satarupa
what is the contriyo sachilden and sachwan in cell thoery
Iqra

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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