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Learning objectives

  • Identify the most common bacterial pathogens that can cause infections of the reproductive system
  • Compare the major characteristics of specific bacterial diseases affecting the reproductive system

In addition to infections of the urinary tract, bacteria commonly infect the reproductive tract. As with the urinary tract, parts of the reproductive system closest to the external environment are the most likely sites of infection. Often, the same microbes are capable of causing urinary tract and reproductive tract infections.

Bacterial vaginitis and vaginosis

Inflammation of the vagina is called vaginitis , often caused by a bacterial infection. It is also possible to have an imbalance in the normal vaginal microbiota without inflammation called bacterial vaginosis (BV) . Vaginosis may be asymptomatic or may cause mild symptoms such as a thin, white-to-yellow, homogeneous vaginal discharge, burning, odor, and itching. The major causative agent is Gardnerella vaginalis , a gram-variable to gram-negative pleomorphic bacterium. Other causative agents include anaerobic species such as members of the genera Bacteroides and Fusobacterium . Additionally, ureaplasma and mycoplasma may be involved. The disease is usually self-limiting, although antibiotic treatment is recommended if symptoms develop.

G. vaginalis appears to be more virulent than other vaginal bacterial species potentially associated with BV. Like Lactobacillus spp., G. vaginalis is part of the normal vaginal microbiota, but when the population of Lactobacillus spp. decreases and the vaginal pH increases, G. vaginalis flourishes, causing vaginosis by attaching to vaginal epithelial cells and forming a thick protective biofilm . G. vaginalis also produces a cytotoxin called vaginolysin that lyses vaginal epithelial cells and red blood cells.

Since G. vaginalis can also be isolated from healthy women, the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of BV is direct examination of vaginal secretions and not the culture of G. vaginalis . Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis from vaginal secretions can be accurately made in three ways. The first is to use a DNA probe . The second method is to assay for sialidase activity (sialidase is an enzyme produced by G. vaginalis and other bacteria associated with vaginosis, including Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., and Mobiluncus spp.). The third method is to assess gram-stained vaginal smears for microscopic morphology and relative numbers and types of bacteria, squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes. By examining slides prepared from vaginal swabs , it is possible to distinguish lactobacilli (long, gram-positive rods) from other gram-negative species responsible for BV. A shift in predominance from gram-positive bacilli to gram-negative coccobacilli can indicate BV. Additionally, the slide may contain so-called clue cells , which are epithelial cells that appear to have a granular or stippled appearance due to bacterial cells attached to their surface ( [link] ). Presumptive diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis can involve an assessment of clinical symptoms and evaluation of vaginal fluids using Amsel’s diagnostic criteria which include 3 out of 4 of the following characteristics:

Questions & Answers

what are the main effect of parasite?
yunusa Reply
nutritional group of micro organism
Mana Reply
what are the charateristic bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses have in commom
Ami Reply
D N A ar purno rup ki
Ruba Reply
বাংলায় দেখবো DNA এর পূর্রন্যরুপ কি
what's microbiology
micro biology is the study of micro organisms,those being unicellular multicellular or a cellular
deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code.
Does the parasite/parasitology are under microbiology or not
Define bacteria
Bacteria are a type of biological cell & they constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
what kind of microbiology
hello what is main function of T and B cells
Ishaq Reply
T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity while B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies)
what is hepatitis B
it's viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases. the virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids...
What are fundamental experiment of microbiology?
Lucky Reply
study of microscopic organisms, unicellular and multicellular
what are the characteristics of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes
bacteria-are living organism. contain a peptidoglycan/lipopolysaccharide cell wall. VIRUS-are considered as organic structure which interact with living organism don't have acell wall. they have many differents like bacteria size -large(1000nm) virus size-smaller(20-400nm). bacteria ribosomes presen
virus ribosomes absence. bacteria living organism. virus b/n living and non-living things
eukaryotic cell has a true membrane bond nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmenalization of function
This answer is wrong
Jeffrey Reply
who discovered the growth curve
Joy Reply
Example of coccus bacteria
Nweke Reply
staphylococcus aureus
MRSA any bew information
pl. read any new information about MRSA
Any stru tural finding about novel corona virus
Examples of spiral bacteria
Nweke Reply
Example of Bacillus bacteria
another one
what is the desifection decontamination or sterilization
Sahra Reply
Is the removal of dangerous substances or germs from an area, objects or person
It is the removal of any pathogen, including their spores
removal of all forms of life including endospore
I think there is a difference between disinfection and sterilization... we should consider those....
disinfection deals with removing harmful microbes at the surface level it doesn't destroy or kill spores ( it uses oxidizing agents ,alcohols , phenolic comp ,aldehydes etc) but sterilization deals with total elimination of all forms of lives.(this uses heat, steam, radiation and chemicals)
disinfecting is preventing microorganisms while sterilization is killing of microorganisms completely
What is gram positive bacteria?
Rabindra Reply
are those bacteria that have peptidoglycan layer
are bacterias which solutions change to colours
types of fungi and its characteristics
types of gangrene how it presents?
any one pls
answer the question pls
don't know
They are the bacterias that have tick layer of peptidoglycan
they're bacteria that have multiple layers of peptidoglycan in their cell wall. These layers make it thick and thus do not allow decolourization of the cell after applying the primary stain and thus retain the purple colour of primary stain after gram staining.
what is virus
HSR Reply
which method is used to measure the concentration of bacterial contamination in processed peanut butter?
Julius Reply
direct method using direct microscopic count
I will have to know the exact answer
define the microbiology?
Ali Reply
what is selective media ?
A selective media is composed of Specific ingredients to inhibit the growth of Certain species of microbes in a mixed culture While allowing others to grow

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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