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A diagram showing different regions of the body. Each region has a pie chart that shows which bacteria are most prevalent. The most common bacterium in each region: Glabella (corynebacterineae), Alar Crease (propionibacterineae), External auditory canal (propionibacterineae), Nare (other actinobacteria), manubrioum (propionibacterineae), Axillary vault (proteobacteria), antecubital fossa (proteobacteria), Volar forearm (proteobacteria), interdigital web space (proteobacteria), hypothenar palm (proteobacteria), inguinal crease (corynebacterineae), umbilicus (corynebacterineae), toe web space (corynebacterineae, , propionibacterineae, and staphylococcaceae), reticular crease (propionibacterineae), occiput (staphylococcaceae, back (propionibacterineae), buttock (proteobacteria), gluteal crease (corynebacterineae), popliteal fossa (staphylococcaceae), plantar heel (staphylococcaceae).  Second part of the image shows that different subjects have different bacterial percentages and that these percentages change over time.
The normal microbiota varies on different regions of the skin, especially in dry versus moist areas. The figure shows the major organisms commonly found in different locations of a healthy individual’s skin and external mucosa. Note that there is significant variation among individuals. (credit: modification of work by National Human Genome Research Institute)
  • What are the four most common bacteria that are part of the normal skin microbiota?

Infections of the skin

While the microbiota of the skin can play a protective role, it can also cause harm in certain cases. Often, an opportunistic pathogen residing in the skin microbiota of one individual may be transmitted to another individual more susceptible to an infection. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) can often take up residence in the nares of health care workers and hospital patients; though harmless on intact, healthy skin, MRSA can cause infections if introduced into other parts of the body, as might occur during surgery or via a post-surgical incision or wound. This is one reason why clean surgical sites are so important.

Injury or damage to the skin can allow microbes to enter deeper tissues, where nutrients are more abundant and the environment is more conducive to bacterial growth. Wound infections are common after a puncture or laceration that damages the physical barrier of the skin. Microbes may infect structures in the dermis , such as hair follicles and glands , causing a localized infection, or they may reach the bloodstream, which can lead to a systemic infection.

In some cases, infectious microbes can cause a variety of rashes or lesions that differ in their physical characteristics. These rashes can be the result of inflammation reactions or direct responses to toxins produced by the microbes. [link] lists some of the medical terminology used to describe skin lesions and rashes based on their characteristics; [link] and [link] illustrate some of the various types of skin lesions. It is important to note that many different diseases can lead to skin conditions of very similar appearance; thus the terms used in the table are generally not exclusive to a particular type of infection or disease.

Some Medical Terms Associated with Skin Lesions and Rashes
Term Definition
abscess localized collection of pus
bulla (pl., bullae ) fluid-filled blister no more than 5 mm in diameter
carbuncle deep, pus-filled abscess generally formed from multiple furuncles
crust dried fluids from a lesion on the surface of the skin
cyst encapsulated sac filled with fluid, semi-solid matter, or gas, typically located just below the upper layers of skin
folliculitis a localized rash due to inflammation of hair follicles
furuncle ( boil ) pus-filled abscess due to infection of a hair follicle
macules smooth spots of discoloration on the skin
papules small raised bumps on the skin
pseudocyst lesion that resembles a cyst but with a less defined boundary
purulent pus-producing; suppurative
pustules fluid- or pus-filled bumps on the skin
pyoderma any suppurative (pus-producing) infection of the skin
suppurative producing pus; purulent
ulcer break in the skin; open sore
vesicle small, fluid-filled lesion
wheal swollen, inflamed skin that itches or burns, such as from an insect bite

Questions & Answers

with the aid of a well labeled diagram describe the conducting system
Maridad Reply
what is cellular immunity
namugenyi Reply
Cellular Immunity. -Lymphocytes act against target cell. -Acts directly by killing infected cells.
abdinor
What are NK cells
Peter
Natural killer cells
Rahaba
what are Antigen determinant
mary
cellular immunity is the state where the lymphocytes destroy the infected or targeted cell
cynthia
any examples of oedema
cynthia
introduction of microbial diversity-1
Bhavanimangali Reply
List the type of micro organism arround us and how they can be seen and with what kind of instrument
clinton Reply
how is the arrangements of bacteria in bacilli
Vaidah Reply
Provide some examples of bacterial structures that might be used as antibiotic targets and explain why.
Vaidah
Coccobacilli, Club-Shaped bacilli, Bacilli with rounded ends, Fuilform bacilli, Bacilli with ends square.
Enoch
three main antibiotic targets in bacteria: The cell wall or membranes that surrounds the bacterial cell. The machineries that make the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The machinery that produce proteins
Rushikesh
The bacterial cell wall. Protein production. and DNA synthesis. Why, this is because most drugs (antibiotics) affects the cell wall of the bacteria, which makes the bacteria weak or susceptible in human body.
Enoch
UV rays affecting the..
Mali Reply
what is microbiology
Baba Reply
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell which includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and pathogenic protozoa.
Enoch
Microbiology is the branch of Life science which deals with scientific study of many Microorganisms.
Rushikesh
what is types of microbiology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Algology etc
Enoch
Virology, Immunology, Bacteriology, Algology, Mycology, Protoozology etc
Enoch
and what is mycology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Serology, Virology, Microbial Genetics, Parasitology, Bacteriology, Mycology, Molecular, Cell Biology, Agricultural, Water,Soil, Food Industrial ,Pharmaceutical, Applied, Environmental, Clinical, Medical,Marine Microbiology, Microbial Systematics, Etc, are & many types of Microbiology.
Rushikesh
study of fungi is called mycology
Munna
Mycology is the branch of Microbiology which deals with scientific study of Fungi.
Rushikesh
Study of microorganisms,which we can't see with our naked eye is called microbiology
Munna
Mycology is the scientific study of Fungi.
Enoch
virology is the study of viruses
Oppah
what is microbiology? microbiology is the study of small microorganisms that we can not with our naked eyes.
Leticia
what is taxonomical classification of microbiology
Bami
The algae, protozoa, slime moulds, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses ,are taxonomic classification of Microorganisms
Rushikesh
We have Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Viruses.
Enoch
microbiology is the study of microbes too small to be seen by naked eyes
Maridad
microbiology is a branch of biology which deals with study of smallest living microrganisms such as bacteria protozoa fungi and viruses
Chaitra
microbiology is the study of microorganisms which can't be seen by our naked eyes
Nakaweesi
Micro - Minute Bio - Life Logus - Study
Roshan
what is the meaning of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Devshree Reply
seven gram positive bacteria
Okocha Reply
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
Physical conditions that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile Reply
Nutritional requirements that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile
Nutritional requirements that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile
what is constant flux but
Jane Reply
Digestion of food is completed in __
Amina Reply
Small Intestine
Enoch
large inteatine
Abdiwali
small intestine
Betelhem
Small intestine
Abdirisaq
small intestine
Marah
small intestine specific in illum
Mariam
difference btwn hausteria and appears
Raviha Reply
numerical and molecular taxanomy
Dhanshri Reply
difference btwn hausteria and appesorium
Raviha
full life cycle of plasmodium parasite
Emmah Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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