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A diagram showing different regions of the body. Each region has a pie chart that shows which bacteria are most prevalent. The most common bacterium in each region: Glabella (corynebacterineae), Alar Crease (propionibacterineae), External auditory canal (propionibacterineae), Nare (other actinobacteria), manubrioum (propionibacterineae), Axillary vault (proteobacteria), antecubital fossa (proteobacteria), Volar forearm (proteobacteria), interdigital web space (proteobacteria), hypothenar palm (proteobacteria), inguinal crease (corynebacterineae), umbilicus (corynebacterineae), toe web space (corynebacterineae, , propionibacterineae, and staphylococcaceae), reticular crease (propionibacterineae), occiput (staphylococcaceae, back (propionibacterineae), buttock (proteobacteria), gluteal crease (corynebacterineae), popliteal fossa (staphylococcaceae), plantar heel (staphylococcaceae).  Second part of the image shows that different subjects have different bacterial percentages and that these percentages change over time.
The normal microbiota varies on different regions of the skin, especially in dry versus moist areas. The figure shows the major organisms commonly found in different locations of a healthy individual’s skin and external mucosa. Note that there is significant variation among individuals. (credit: modification of work by National Human Genome Research Institute)
  • What are the four most common bacteria that are part of the normal skin microbiota?

Infections of the skin

While the microbiota of the skin can play a protective role, it can also cause harm in certain cases. Often, an opportunistic pathogen residing in the skin microbiota of one individual may be transmitted to another individual more susceptible to an infection. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) can often take up residence in the nares of health care workers and hospital patients; though harmless on intact, healthy skin, MRSA can cause infections if introduced into other parts of the body, as might occur during surgery or via a post-surgical incision or wound. This is one reason why clean surgical sites are so important.

Injury or damage to the skin can allow microbes to enter deeper tissues, where nutrients are more abundant and the environment is more conducive to bacterial growth. Wound infections are common after a puncture or laceration that damages the physical barrier of the skin. Microbes may infect structures in the dermis , such as hair follicles and glands , causing a localized infection, or they may reach the bloodstream, which can lead to a systemic infection.

In some cases, infectious microbes can cause a variety of rashes or lesions that differ in their physical characteristics. These rashes can be the result of inflammation reactions or direct responses to toxins produced by the microbes. [link] lists some of the medical terminology used to describe skin lesions and rashes based on their characteristics; [link] and [link] illustrate some of the various types of skin lesions. It is important to note that many different diseases can lead to skin conditions of very similar appearance; thus the terms used in the table are generally not exclusive to a particular type of infection or disease.

Some Medical Terms Associated with Skin Lesions and Rashes
Term Definition
abscess localized collection of pus
bulla (pl., bullae ) fluid-filled blister no more than 5 mm in diameter
carbuncle deep, pus-filled abscess generally formed from multiple furuncles
crust dried fluids from a lesion on the surface of the skin
cyst encapsulated sac filled with fluid, semi-solid matter, or gas, typically located just below the upper layers of skin
folliculitis a localized rash due to inflammation of hair follicles
furuncle ( boil ) pus-filled abscess due to infection of a hair follicle
macules smooth spots of discoloration on the skin
papules small raised bumps on the skin
pseudocyst lesion that resembles a cyst but with a less defined boundary
purulent pus-producing; suppurative
pustules fluid- or pus-filled bumps on the skin
pyoderma any suppurative (pus-producing) infection of the skin
suppurative producing pus; purulent
ulcer break in the skin; open sore
vesicle small, fluid-filled lesion
wheal swollen, inflamed skin that itches or burns, such as from an insect bite

Questions & Answers

can you please differentiate between vacuoles and inclusion bodies
Noor Reply
vacuoles consists of watery solution called cell sap while bodies are organelles
Prince
5 difference please
Noor
Archaea is an odd type of bacteria that live in extreme environments; high salt, high temperature etc. usually called extremophiles.
Danesia Reply
you know anyone that has delt with enterobacter agglomerans.
Vernon
it is a type of gram negative bacteria and its ubiquitous mostly isolated from plant stuffs and also from faecal material of animals. I heard the name pantoea . it is bacillus in structure.
Sujan
OLUKA MARTIN
Oluka
What are the classification of microorganisms
Portia Reply
Basic classification are eukaryotic and prokaryotic..
micro organisms are classified into three namely: Archaea, eukaryote and prokaryotic organisms
Blandine
Yay that's right
what is archaea
Ateeq
I've got an issue with the message view
Frank Reply
Is there any effective way to learn microbiology.
Frank Reply
I have some basic knowledge of biology. I mean i'm totally beginner in that field.
Frank
Assuming that i'm interested in neuroscience. What is the best way to master that particular subject.
Frank
Hi
Can you wait me just a minute
Iam apologies for guidance you in neuroscience.. I'm not physician.. I'm microbiologist
My pleasure to join to you
Let's begin a conversation
Frank Reply
What would be saying
?
Akram
do you know anything about microbiology
diana
I have so much studying to catch up on🙄
Britnee
any study tips
Britnee
Yas of course
What would you like to know
well i'm studying Pharmacy second year and i just started With Microbiology
diana
if you have any basics to tell us 🤷🏻‍♀️ would be helpful
diana
Yas, first you must know that you will have a very easy lecture..
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology
A simple definition for microbiology
In second stage you will try to learn the type of microbiology.. you must learn the bacteria..its structure.. Classification of bacteria according to shape..
It's so easy
What triggers the natural killer cells
jenipher Reply
microbiology is the study of science which deals with study of microorganism e.g .virus,bacteria
sufian Reply
microbiology is a branch of science that deals with invisible microorganisms.
Abdinur
microbiology is the branch of science which deals with the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
Andrre
what is microbiology
Safwan Reply
history of microbiology
julie
give all details about cell
Samim Reply
Give me another names for all hypersensitivity
Don Reply
Give me the modern father of microbiology
Don
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
RITU
Louis pasteur is father of modern microbiology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is only the father of microbiology
Sujan
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe the mos. whereas pasteur is the one who described about the vaccine , pasteurization etc.
Sujan
what is the virulence factor
mukhtar Reply
is the abilityof pathogen that cause disease
mary
classification of bacteria
Divya Reply
are classified into 5 as follow 1= bacilli 2= vibro 3= spirilla 4= cocci 5= spirochaetes.
Abdulkareem
this one is on the basis of morphological structure
Sujan
gram positive and gram negative according to gram staining
Sujan
u can find on the basis of temperature resistance and oxygen tolerance
Sujan
good
ANAS
on basis of oxygen requirement they could be categorized as Aerobic anaerobic facultative aerobes microaerophilic
ANAS
bacteria are classified into the three type according to their shape 1.Round cocci 2.Rod bacilli 3. spiral
mukhtar
sorry to say but for microbes there is no facultative aerobes instead it must b facultative anaerobic and obligatory anaerobic, aerotolerant
Sujan
Which ones are the microaerophilic
Godwin
what is the difference between krebs cycle and calvin cycle
Baye Reply
what are pathogens
Oluka Reply
any disease causing microorganism that can invade the body and cause harm
famuyiwa
hepatitis b
Oluka
what's da answer
Oluka
any diseases that course harmful to body
Musa
hepatitis is usually implementery of the liver and is commonly course by virus infection
Musa
a type of virus that causes severe illness lasting from two to six weeks it may cause massive lived necrosis and cirrhosis
famuyiwa
hepatitis B are transmitted when in contact with body fluid such as blood,semen,varginal secration that contain the hepatitis b virus
Musa

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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