<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Learning objectives

  • Explain why human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are important in tissue transplantation
  • Explain the types of grafts possible and their potential for interaction with the immune system
  • Describe what occurs during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

A graft is the transplantation of an organ or tissue to a different location, with the goal of replacing a missing or damaged organ or tissue. Grafts are typically moved without their attachments to the circulatory system and must reestablish these, in addition to the other connections and interactions with their new surrounding tissues. There are different types of grafts depending on the source of the new tissue or organ. Tissues that are transplanted from one genetically distinct individual to another within the same species are called allograft s . An interesting variant of the allograft is an isograft , in which tissue from one twin is transplanted to another. As long as the twins are monozygotic (therefore, essentially genetically identical), the transplanted tissue is virtually never rejected. If tissues are transplanted from one area on an individual to another area on the same individual (e.g., a skin graft on a burn patient), it is known as an autograft . If tissues from an animal are transplanted into a human, this is called a xenograft .

Transplant rejection

The different types of grafts described above have varying risks for rejection ( [link] ). Rejection occurs when the recipient’s immune system recognizes the donor tissue as foreign (non-self), triggering an immune response. The major histocompatibility complex markers MHC I and MHC II , more specifically identified as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) , play a role in transplant rejection. The HLAs expressed in tissue transplanted from a genetically different individual or species may be recognized as non-self molecules by the host’s dendritic cells . If this occurs, the dendritic cells will process and present the foreign HLAs to the host’s helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells, thereby activating them. Cytotoxic T cells then target and kill the grafted cells through the same mechanism they use to kill virus-infected cells; helper T cells may also release cytokines that activate macrophages to kill graft cells.

Types of Tissue and Organ Grafts and Their Complications
Graft Procedure Complications
Autograft From self to self No rejection concerns
Isograft From identical twin to twin Little concern of rejection
Allograft From relative or nonrelative to individual Rejection possible
Xenograft From animal to human Rejection possible

With the three highly polymorphic MHC I genes in humans ( HLA-A , HLA-B , and HLA-C ) determining compatibility, each with many alleles segregating in a population, odds are extremely low that a randomly chosen donor will match a recipient's six-allele genotype (the two alleles at each locus are expressed codominantly). This is why a parent or a sibling may be the best donor in many situations—a genetic match between the MHC genes is much more likely and the organ is much less likely to be rejected.

Questions & Answers

what is mutation
Cynthia Reply
alteration in genetic makeup
UDEME
Hi, I'm new here. I'm Bello Abdul Hakeem from Nigeria.
BELLO Reply
welcome on board
Kamaluddeen
Thanks brother I'm an undergraduate. I hope to study for MBBS.
BELLO
pls guys help me out
Linda
what is limitation of plate
Linda
limitation of plate load test . there are some that should be considered while performing load test which are given below, this test is usually performed on relatively similar plate ,usually 1 or 2 square foot area the reason is that the plate of greater are the economically not feasible
yemi
Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity
rashida Reply
Toxicity
Ibrahim
write a short note on Algea
najaatu Reply
green minutes plants organisms that are produced in turf.
Prince
Algae is a kind of a photosynthetic organism, which is usually grown in the moist areas. These are usually the simple plants that grow near to the water bodies. It contains a kind of chlorophyll pigments that act as a primary coloring agent.
Avi
they are eukaryotic and most lived in fresh water. they are photosynthetic that's, they contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplast.
Prince
are bacteria important to man
just Reply
yes, depending on the type of bacteria .eg the normal florals, the latic acid batteries etc are important to man
Lois
I mean latic acid bacterial
Lois
I don't understand this topic
Jane Reply
what topic is that
Rose
sahi kon hai bhosri ke
saurabh Reply
define metabolism of carbohydrates with example
Thavasi Reply
what is sterilization a
Sani
the process of keep equipment free from bacteria
shar
is it only bacteria?
Lois
no undesirable fungi and contamination also.
Khushbu
what is streak plate method
Offikwu
what is the biofilm
Dimingu
metabolism is the sum of all the biochemical reaction required for energy generation and use of that energy to synthesize cell materials from small molecules in environment.
Alex
boclenia
Pooja
what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
e.coli
Sukhdeep
granulocytes are type of WBCs which contains granules in the cytoplasm
Owili
what is mutation
Cynthia
it is the interchange of genes from their normal sequence
Esther
is an heritable change of the base-pair sequence of genetic material
Elizabeth
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
e coli is the example of prokaryotes
Sukhdeep
archaea too
Noel
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
what is sterilization
Sani
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
define disinfectant
Sani
the process of killing
shar
the process of killing microorganisms
shar

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask