<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Despite these disadvantages, inactivated vaccines do have the advantages of long-term storage stability and ease of transport. Also, there is no risk of causing severe active infections. However, inactivated vaccines are not without their side effects. [link] lists examples of inactivated vaccines.

Subunit vaccines

Whereas live attenuated and inactive vaccines expose an individual to a weakened or dead pathogen, subunit vaccines only expose the patient to the key antigens of a pathogen—not whole cells or viruses. Subunit vaccines can be produced either by chemically degrading a pathogen and isolating its key antigens or by producing the antigens through genetic engineering. Because these vaccines contain only the essential antigens of a pathogen, the risk of side effects is relatively low. [link] lists examples of subunit vaccines.

Toxoid vaccines

Like subunit vaccines, toxoid vaccines do not introduce a whole pathogen to the patient; they contain inactivated bacterial toxins , called toxoids. Toxoid vaccines are used to prevent diseases in which bacterial toxins play an important role in pathogenesis. These vaccines activate humoral immunity that neutralizes the toxins. [link] lists examples of toxoid vaccines.

Conjugate vaccines

A conjugate vaccine is a type of subunit vaccine that consists of a protein conjugated to a capsule polysaccharide. Conjugate vaccines have been developed to enhance the efficacy of subunit vaccines against pathogens that have protective polysaccharide capsules that help them evade phagocytosis , causing invasive infections that can lead to meningitis and other serious conditions. The subunit vaccines against these pathogens introduce T-independent capsular polysaccharide antigens that result in the production of antibodies that can opsonize the capsule and thus combat the infection; however, children under the age of two years do not respond effectively to these vaccines. Children do respond effectively when vaccinated with the conjugate vaccine, in which a protein with T-dependent antigens is conjugated to the capsule polysaccharide. The conjugated protein-polysaccharide antigen stimulates production of antibodies against both the protein and the capsule polysaccharide. [link] lists examples of conjugate vaccines.

Classes of Vaccines
Class Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Live attenuated Weakened strain of whole pathogen Cellular and humoral immunity Difficult to store and transport Chickenpox, German measles, measles, mumps, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever
Long-lasting immunity Risk of infection in immunocompromised patients
Transmission to contacts Risk of reversion
Inactivated Whole pathogen killed or inactivated with heat, chemicals, or radiation Ease of storage and transport Weaker immunity (humoral only) Cholera, hepatitis A, influenza, plague, rabies
No risk of severe active infection Higher doses and more boosters required
Subunit Immunogenic antigens Lower risk of side effects Limited longevity Anthrax, hepatitis B, influenza, meningitis, papillomavirus, pneumococcal pneumonia, whooping cough
Multiple doses required
No protection against antigenic variation
Toxoid Inactivated bacterial toxin Humoral immunity to neutralize toxin Does not prevent infection Botulism, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
Conjugate Capsule polysaccharide conjugated to protein T-dependent response to capsule Costly to produce Meningitis
( Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Neisseria meningitides )
No protection against antigenic variation
Better response in young children May interfere with other vaccines

Questions & Answers

how do i report widal slide results
Isaac Reply
how food can be used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
Ashi Reply
what is the importance of understanding chemistry in the field of microbiology and food technology?
Charmaine Reply
What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
Abia Reply
main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
Iqra
prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
Yashi
what s anatomy
jane Reply
its mean body structure, function, and systems
gazi
study of internal structure of living things
Falere
anatomy is the study structure of the made human
isir
anotomy is the actual study of body internally and externally Which include how itis made. for what and what is need of this
Iqra
la science anatomie c'est la science qui nous aide à étudier l'homme
Baraka
okay
Baraka
Ancestor are they real
Rapheal Reply
yes of course
David
yes please
Clark
50 50, depending on the accuracy of the clan records.
Vincent
okay
Baraka
Why protist is not a kingdom of Linnaeus 'S taxonomy?
Neha Reply
I dont know
Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
Lad
name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
Pohor
what is microbiology
Baraka
the study of large living organisms
Pratibha
the study of organisms which are micro in range
Vency
what is autoclaving?
Yashi
process for sterilization
Vency
is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
Clark
what is difference between hot air oven and autoclave as they both are used for sterilization ?
Vency
autoclave basically do moist heat sterilization while hot air oven do sterilization by dry heat.....
Yashi
what is the microbe
HUSSAIN
which method out of these two is best?
Yashi
why human have microbe
HUSSAIN
Hi
Sadam
hi to all
Sadam
depends on what to sterilize
Vency
microbes
Md
what is knowledge
HUSSAIN
well idea
Daniel
what are the importance of microbiologe to a nurse
Enny Reply
it enable a nurse to know the weight and height of a patient
Abotu
it helps the nurse in way as to give first aid to patient on which basis doctor will take diagonos
Iqra
disagree with both of you
Akhtar
ok
Abotu
Your Own idea
Abotu
it helps a nurse to be able to counsel a patient /client
Abotu
cell culture
Tean
Types of micro organisms
Jennifer Reply
Who discovered plant and animal cell
Jennifer
Robert Hooke
Martha
Father of microbiology
Jennifer Reply
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Satarupa
Why are mitochondria and chloroplasts unable to multiply outside of a host cell?
Iqra Reply
iqra mitochondria arises from the division of existing mitochondria and they are fused together. they move around inside the cell with the interactions of the cytoskeleton that's why mitochondria unable to multiply outside the host cells chloroplasts has its own separate DNA from the plant cell.
Rana
short not on medical microbiology
Massah Reply
Hy
Iqra
hope you fine
Arif
love you
Arif
Assalamualaikum
Suhaib
arai yeh micro kai sth kis ko love hua
Umer
icrobiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses
Suhaib
iqra iqbal
Arif
What is gram syaining?
Arif
to differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacty
Umer
True
Arif
where you are from
Arif
i m frm sopore..kashmir
Umer
i m frm baramulla .. Kashmir
Umer
and u
Umer
umer
Arif
and i m from afghanistan lovely country
Arif
yes
Umer
thanks
Arif
medical microbiology means study of microorganisms which are beneficial or harmful for the body. mostly which are studied under microscope by structure and shape appearance. e.g bacteria, viruses, bacteriophage, fungus hyphae and some blood and other body fluids parasites e.g plasmodium etc.
Rana
arif bhai gram staining in which we are given different dyes to the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasm and nucleus.e.g giemsa stain
Rana
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Omar baba crystal violet iodine 70% alcohol fuchicine or safranine after every step washing must be done
Rana
hello
Cristy
*Fuchsin stain
Cristy
*Safranin
Cristy
thanks
Ganesh
difference between epidermophyton trichophyton and microsporum
Ankita Reply
plz answer the question
Iqra
epidermophyton type of fungi causes superficial and cutaneous mycoses trichophyton is also fungi type including parasitic varieties causes dermatophytosis microsporum is also type of fungi causes dermatophytosis.
Rana
ok
Iqra
Is this app perfect for preparation of exam?
Ankita
Ankita I totally disagree with your respected opinion. it's just minor helpful
Rana
disagree by me ?
Ankita
what is infectious
Fred Reply
Practice MCQ 2

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask
Madison Christian
Start Exam
Edgar Delgado
Start Test
Darlene Paliswat
Start Test
Yacoub Jayoghli
Start Quiz
Robert Murphy
Start Test