<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Basophils

Basophils have cytoplasmic granules of varied size and are named for their granules’ ability to absorb the basic dye methylene blue ( [link] ). Their stimulation and degranulation can result from multiple triggering events. Activated complement fragments C3a and C5a, produced in the activation cascades of complement proteins, act as anaphylatoxins by inducing degranulation of basophils and inflammatory responses. This cell type is important in allergic reactions and other responses that involve inflammation. One of the most abundant components of basophil granules is histamine , which is released along with other chemical factors when the basophil is stimulated. These chemicals can be chemotactic and can help to open the gaps between cells in the blood vessels. Other mechanisms for basophil triggering require the assistance of antibodies, as discussed in B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity .

Mast cells

Hematopoiesis also gives rise to mast cells , which appear to be derived from the same common myeloid progenitor cell as neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Functionally, mast cells are very similar to basophils, containing many of the same components in their granules (e.g., histamine ) and playing a similar role in allergic responses and other inflammatory reactions. However, unlike basophils, mast cells leave the circulating blood and are most frequently found residing in tissues. They are often associated with blood vessels and nerves or found close to surfaces that interface with the external environment, such as the skin and mucous membranes in various regions of the body ( [link] ).

a) Mast cells in blood. Mast cells are large purple cells, red blood cells are small pink cells with a clear center. b) mast cell outside of blood.
Mast cells function similarly to basophils by inducing and promoting inflammatory responses. (a) This figure shows mast cells in blood. In a blood smear, they are difficult to differentiate from basophils (b). Unlike basophils, mast cells migrate from the blood into various tissues. (credit right: modification of work by Greenland JR, Xu X, Sayah DM, Liu FC, Jones KD, Looney MR, Caughey GH)
  • Describe the granules and nuclei of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells.
  • Name three antimicrobial mechanisms of neutrophils

Part 3

Angela’s tests come back negative for all common allergens, and her sputum samples contain no abnormal presence of pathogenic microbes or elevated levels of members of the normal respiratory microbiota. She does, however, have elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in her blood.

The swelling of her airway has still not responded to treatment with antihistamines or corticosteroids. Additional blood work shows that Angela has a mildly elevated white blood cell count but normal antibody levels. Also, she has a lower-than-normal level of the complement protein C4.

  • What does this new information reveal about the cause of Angela’s constricted airways?
  • What are some possible conditions that could lead to low levels of complement proteins?

Jump to the next Clinical Focus box. Go back to the previous Clinical Focus box.

Agranulocytes

As their name suggests, agranulocytes lack visible granules in the cytoplasm. Agranulocytes can be categorized as lymphocytes or monocytes ( [link] ). Among the lymphocytes are natural killer cells, which play an important role in nonspecific innate immune defenses. Lymphocytes also include the B cells and T cells, which are discussed in the next chapter because they are central players in the specific adaptive immune defenses. The monocytes differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells , which are collectively referred to as the mononuclear phagocyte system.

Questions & Answers

what is cellular immunity
namugenyi Reply
Cellular Immunity. -Lymphocytes act against target cell. -Acts directly by killing infected cells.
abdinor
What are NK cells
Peter
Natural killer cells
Rahaba
what are Antigen determinant
mary
cellular immunity is the state where the lymphocytes destroy the infected or targeted cell
cynthia
any examples of oedema
cynthia
introduction of microbial diversity-1
Bhavanimangali Reply
List the type of micro organism arround us and how they can be seen and with what kind of instrument
clinton Reply
how is the arrangements of bacteria in bacilli
Vaidah Reply
Provide some examples of bacterial structures that might be used as antibiotic targets and explain why.
Vaidah
Coccobacilli, Club-Shaped bacilli, Bacilli with rounded ends, Fuilform bacilli, Bacilli with ends square.
Enoch
three main antibiotic targets in bacteria: The cell wall or membranes that surrounds the bacterial cell. The machineries that make the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The machinery that produce proteins
Rushikesh
The bacterial cell wall. Protein production. and DNA synthesis. Why, this is because most drugs (antibiotics) affects the cell wall of the bacteria, which makes the bacteria weak or susceptible in human body.
Enoch
UV rays affecting the..
Mali Reply
what is microbiology
Baba Reply
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell which includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and pathogenic protozoa.
Enoch
Microbiology is the branch of Life science which deals with scientific study of many Microorganisms.
Rushikesh
what is types of microbiology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Algology etc
Enoch
Virology, Immunology, Bacteriology, Algology, Mycology, Protoozology etc
Enoch
and what is mycology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Serology, Virology, Microbial Genetics, Parasitology, Bacteriology, Mycology, Molecular, Cell Biology, Agricultural, Water,Soil, Food Industrial ,Pharmaceutical, Applied, Environmental, Clinical, Medical,Marine Microbiology, Microbial Systematics, Etc, are & many types of Microbiology.
Rushikesh
study of fungi is called mycology
Munna
Mycology is the branch of Microbiology which deals with scientific study of Fungi.
Rushikesh
Study of microorganisms,which we can't see with our naked eye is called microbiology
Munna
Mycology is the scientific study of Fungi.
Enoch
virology is the study of viruses
Oppah
what is microbiology? microbiology is the study of small microorganisms that we can not with our naked eyes.
Leticia
what is taxonomical classification of microbiology
Bami
The algae, protozoa, slime moulds, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses ,are taxonomic classification of Microorganisms
Rushikesh
We have Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Viruses.
Enoch
what is the meaning of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Devshree Reply
seven gram positive bacteria
Okocha Reply
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
Physical conditions that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile Reply
Nutritional requirements that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile
Nutritional requirements that would enable selective Isolation of staphylococcus epidermis
shongile
what is constant flux but
Jane Reply
Digestion of food is completed in __
Amina Reply
Small Intestine
Enoch
large inteatine
Abdiwali
small intestine
Betelhem
Small intestine
Abdirisaq
small intestine
Marah
small intestine specific in illum
Mariam
difference btwn hausteria and appears
Raviha Reply
numerical and molecular taxanomy
Dhanshri Reply
difference btwn hausteria and appesorium
Raviha
full life cycle of plasmodium parasite
Emmah Reply
what are ways of handling sharps
namugenyi Reply
never recap or bend a sharp objects
benita
what are some medicine in treating patient with meningitis
Freeman

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask