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Mucous membranes

The mucous membrane s lining the nose, mouth, lungs, and urinary and digestive tracts provide another nonspecific barrier against potential pathogens. Mucous membranes consist of a layer of epithelial cells bound by tight junctions. The epithelial cells secrete a moist, sticky substance called mucus , which covers and protects the more fragile cell layers beneath it and traps debris and particulate matter, including microbes. Mucus secretions also contain antimicrobial peptides.

In many regions of the body, mechanical actions serve to flush mucus (along with trapped or dead microbes) out of the body or away from potential sites of infection. For example, in the respiratory system, inhalation can bring microbes, dust, mold spores, and other small airborne debris into the body. This debris becomes trapped in the mucus lining the respiratory tract, a layer known as the mucociliary blanket. The epithelial cells lining the upper parts of the respiratory tract are called ciliated epithelial cells because they have hair-like appendages known as cilia. Movement of the cilia propels debris-laden mucus out and away from the lungs. The expelled mucus is then swallowed and destroyed in the stomach, or coughed up, or sneezed out ( [link] ). This system of removal is often called the mucociliary escalator .

A spongy-looking surface with tufts of long hairs. Each hair is about 5 µm long; each tuft is about 10 µm in diameter.
This scanning electron micrograph shows ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells from the human trachea. The mucociliary escalator pushes mucus away from the lungs, along with any debris or microorganisms that may be trapped in the sticky mucus, and the mucus moves up to the esophagus where it can be removed by swallowing.

The mucociliary escalator is such an effective barrier to microbes that the lungs, the lowermost (and most sensitive) portion of the respiratory tract, were long considered to be a sterile environment in healthy individuals. Only recently has research suggested that healthy lungs may have a small normal microbiota. Disruption of the mucociliary escalator by the damaging effects of smoking or diseases such as cystic fibrosis can lead to increased colonization of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract and frequent infections, which highlights the importance of this physical barrier to host defenses.

Like the respiratory tract, the digestive tract is a portal of entry through which microbes enter the body, and the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract provide a nonspecific physical barrier against ingested microbes. The intestinal tract is lined with epithelial cells, interspersed with mucus-secreting goblet cells ( [link] ). This mucus mixes with material received from the stomach, trapping foodborne microbes and debris. The mechanical action of peristalsis , a series of muscular contractions in the digestive tract, moves the sloughed mucus and other material through the intestines, rectum, and anus, excreting the material in feces.

Figure a is a diagram of a single goblet cell. Cell is tall and slightly hour-glass shaped. The bottom of the cell is filled with a nucleus. The top shows the Golgi apparatus (folds of membranes), rough endoplasmic reticulum (folds of membranes with dots), secretory vesicles containing mucin (large bubbles), and microvilli (finger-like projections at the top). Figure b is a micrograph of two goblet cells within a row of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells are rectangular with a large nucleus visible. The goblet cells are thinner and have a clear (uncolored) top.
Goblet cells produce and secrete mucus. The arrows in this micrograph point to the mucus-secreting goblet cells (magnification 1600⨯) in the intestinal epithelium. (credit micrograph: Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Questions & Answers

write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas
what are the five predisposing factors of opportunistic infections
Asher Reply
1. long term exposure to diseases, that the body immunity weakens.
prosper
2. Nature Of some diseases to weaken body immunity such as, AIDS.
prosper
3. Use of immuno-suppresive drugs.
prosper
anyone... need a hand here 🙋😞
prosper
Low immune is the major cause eg for kaposis sarcoma
Davismith
suitable conditions e.g temp,
Muhammad
what os gnormal flora
kifayat Reply
morphological and genetic classification of bacteria
Potter Reply
what is the morphogical
Bupe
h
Sudhir
morphologycal is defined as relating to the branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms,and with relationship between their structures.
Nadiya
relating to the form or structure of things .
Nadiya
what is the meaning of lessions
oluwa
i am frim Afghanistan.
wahidullah Reply
iam from iraq
Haidar
and i'm from pakistan
Muhammad
Nice
Amina
what's about the qualification
Muhammad
Hlo
Asiya
Hmm
Number
Almustafa Muhammad from Nigeria
Mujtafa
am ustaz Abdulsalam from Ghana
ustaz
am Bupe Chifita from Zambia
Bupe
what is microbiology
Bupe
is the study of invisible micro organism
Mujtafa
microbiology is the study of very too small organisms which we can't see with naked eyes ......in other words ....study of microorganism is called microbiology.
Nadiya
Hello! How Can Microorganisms Be Isolated From The Skin?.. 5 ways if possible. (briefly)
prosper
from skin swabbing is the prefer method worldwide
Muhammad
thanks Muhammad Nauman very much!
prosper
hi
Meek
hi Meek
prosper
are there any other ways pals?
prosper
hi prosper
Meek
hello Meek Mild.
prosper
Any question or ideas, Meek?😊
prosper
and if a patient have any blister or abscess on the skin then first cut the blister or abscess. inside material is taking by syringe.
Muhammad
in case of fingernail or toenails simply cut a small piece of nail and culture on the appropriate media at a required temperature and time
Muhammad
Again, thanks Mr. Muhammad! I appreciate the help.
prosper
you welcom prosper 😊
Muhammad
what are the media use for skin swab?
Sieh-Mlanwin
blood and macckonkey mostly usededia for skin bacteria
Muhammad
used media*
Muhammad
@ SIEH mostly fungal infection occurs in skin so SDA ( Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) or MEA ( Malt extract agar) are common.
Online
thanks
Sieh-Mlanwin
Microbiologicam source of vitamins
Bachi Reply
what do you mean?
Md
that's example?
Md
hi everyone
Muhammad
such as. c/s media
Md
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Md
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Md
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Muhammad
Practice MCQ 3

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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