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Learning objectives

  • Describe the entities involved in international public health and their activities
  • Identify and differentiate between emerging and reemerging infectious diseases

A large number of international programs and agencies are involved in efforts to promote global public health. Among their goals are developing infrastructure in health care, public sanitation, and public health capacity; monitoring infectious disease occurrences around the world; coordinating communications between national public health agencies in various countries; and coordinating international responses to major health crises. In large part, these international efforts are necessary because disease-causing microorganisms know no national boundaries.

The world health organization (who)

International public health issues are coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) , an agency of the United Nations. Of its roughly $4 billion budget for 2015–16 World Health Organization. “Programme Budget 2014–2015.” http://www.who.int/about/finances-accountability/budget/en. , about $1 billion was funded by member states and the remaining $3 billion by voluntary contributions. In addition to monitoring and reporting on infectious disease, WHO also develops and implements strategies for their control and prevention. WHO has had a number of successful international public health campaigns. For example, its vaccination program against smallpox , begun in the mid-1960s, resulted in the global eradication of the disease by 1980. WHO continues to be involved in infectious disease control, primarily in the developing world, with programs targeting malaria , HIV/AIDS , and tuberculosis , among others. It also runs programs to reduce illness and mortality that occur as a result of violence, accidents, lifestyle-associated illnesses such as diabetes, and poor health-care infrastructure.

WHO maintains a global alert and response system that coordinates information from member nations. In the event of a public health emergency or epidemic, it provides logistical support and coordinates international response to the emergency. The United States contributes to this effort through the CDC. The CDC carries out international monitoring and public health efforts, mainly in the service of protecting US public health in an increasingly connected world. Similarly, the European Union maintains a Health Security Committee that monitors disease outbreaks within its member countries and internationally, coordinating with WHO.

  • Name the organizations that participate in international public health monitoring.

Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases

Both WHO and some national public health agencies such as the CDC monitor and prepare for emerging infectious diseases . An emerging infectious disease is either new to the human population or has shown an increase in prevalence in the previous twenty years. Whether the disease is new or conditions have changed to cause an increase in frequency, its status as emerging implies the need to apply resources to understand and control its growing impact.

Questions & Answers

what happened when someone died and what happened to the blood
Franca Reply
nice question
Attari
what is endoparasites and exo parasite and their example
OGEDE Reply
Endo : inside the body Exo/ecto : outside or on the body
Paul
examples please
OGEDE
Louse for exo/ecto Helminths (worms) for endo
Paul
what's prokaryotic
mohaiminul Reply
A prokaryotic cell is a cell with no membrane bounds organelles
Paul
what are the main effect of parasite?
yunusa Reply
nutritional group of micro organism
Mana Reply
what are the charateristic bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses have in commom
Ami Reply
D N A ar purno rup ki
Ruba Reply
বাংলায় দেখবো DNA এর পূর্রন্যরুপ কি
Ruba
what's microbiology
micah
micro biology is the study of micro organisms,those being unicellular multicellular or a cellular
aniisha
deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code.
aniisha
Does the parasite/parasitology are under microbiology or not
yunusa
Define bacteria
Kainat
Bacteria are a type of biological cell & they constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
raisa
what kind of microbiology
Mira
hello what is main function of T and B cells
Ishaq Reply
T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity while B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies)
Janet
what is hepatitis B
Sunday
it's viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases. the virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids...
Dejene
What are fundamental experiment of microbiology?
Lucky Reply
study of microscopic organisms, unicellular and multicellular
Falere
what are the characteristics of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes
Ami
bacteria-are living organism. contain a peptidoglycan/lipopolysaccharide cell wall. VIRUS-are considered as organic structure which interact with living organism don't have acell wall. they have many differents like bacteria size -large(1000nm) virus size-smaller(20-400nm). bacteria ribosomes presen
Dejene
virus ribosomes absence. bacteria living organism. virus b/n living and non-living things
Dejene
eukaryotic cell has a true membrane bond nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmenalization of function
Dejene
This answer is wrong
Jeffrey Reply
who discovered the growth curve
Joy Reply
Example of coccus bacteria
Nweke Reply
staphylococcus aureus
Elton
MRSA any bew information
Satish
pl. read any new information about MRSA
Satish
Any stru tural finding about novel corona virus
Satish
Examples of spiral bacteria
Nweke Reply
Example of Bacillus bacteria
Nweke
pusals
manikanta
another one
Nweke
what is the desifection decontamination or sterilization
Sahra Reply
Is the removal of dangerous substances or germs from an area, objects or person
Florence
It is the removal of any pathogen, including their spores
Paul
removal of all forms of life including endospore
abdulbasid
I think there is a difference between disinfection and sterilization... we should consider those....
Mosimanegape
disinfection deals with removing harmful microbes at the surface level it doesn't destroy or kill spores ( it uses oxidizing agents ,alcohols , phenolic comp ,aldehydes etc) but sterilization deals with total elimination of all forms of lives.(this uses heat, steam, radiation and chemicals)
Onyinye
disinfecting is preventing microorganisms while sterilization is killing of microorganisms completely
Janet
What is gram positive bacteria?
Rabindra Reply
are those bacteria that have peptidoglycan layer
abdulbasid
are bacterias which solutions change to colours
Dyreen
types of fungi and its characteristics
Dyreen
types of gangrene how it presents?
Dyreen
any one pls
abdulbasid
hi
Buddheshwar
answer the question pls
abdulbasid
don't know
Buddheshwar
yeah
abdulbasid
They are the bacterias that have tick layer of peptidoglycan
Sonimkelechukwu
they're bacteria that have multiple layers of peptidoglycan in their cell wall. These layers make it thick and thus do not allow decolourization of the cell after applying the primary stain and thus retain the purple colour of primary stain after gram staining.
Onyinye

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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