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A) A diagram of cetylpyridinum – a ring with 5 carbons and a nitrogen. The nitrogen is attached to a long carbon chain. Chemical structure of Benzalkonium – a six carbon ring. One carbon is attached to a carbon that is attached to a nitrogen which is attached to a long carbon chain. B) An image of surfactant molecules entering a membrane and breaking the membrane apart.
(a) Two common quats are benzylalkonium chloride and cetylpyrimidine chloride. Note the hydrophobic nonpolar carbon chain at one end and the nitrogen-containing cationic component at the other end. (b) Quats are able to infiltrate the phospholipid plasma membranes of bacterial cells and disrupt their integrity, leading to death of the cell.
  • Why are soaps not considered disinfectants?

Handwashing the right way

Handwashing is critical for public health and should be emphasized in a clinical setting. For the general public, the CDC recommends handwashing before, during, and after food handling; before eating; before and after interacting with someone who is ill; before and after treating a wound; after using the toilet or changing diapers; after coughing, sneezing, or blowing the nose; after handling garbage; and after interacting with an animal, its feed, or its waste. [link] illustrates the five steps of proper handwashing recommended by the CDC.

Handwashing is even more important for health-care workers, who should wash their hands thoroughly between every patient contact, after the removal of gloves, after contact with bodily fluids and potentially infectious fomites, and before and after assisting a surgeon with invasive procedures. Even with the use of proper surgical attire, including gloves, scrubbing for surgery is more involved than routine handwashing. The goal of surgical scrubbing is to reduce the normal microbiota on the skin’s surface to prevent the introduction of these microbes into a patient’s surgical wounds.

There is no single widely accepted protocol for surgical scrubbing. Protocols for length of time spent scrubbing may depend on the antimicrobial used; health-care workers should always check the manufacturer’s recommendations. According to the Association of Surgical Technologists (AST), surgical scrubs may be performed with or without the use of brushes ( [link] ).

a) CDC handwashing recommendations for the general public. 1 – wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold). Turn off the tap and apply soap. 2 – Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers and under your nails. 3 – Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Hum the “Happy birthday” song from beginning to end twice. 4 – Rinse your hands well under clean, running water. 5 – Dry your hands using a clean towel or air-dry them. B) A photo of a person washing their hands.
(a) The CDC recommends five steps as part of typical handwashing for the general public. (b) Surgical scrubbing is more extensive, requiring scrubbing starting from the fingertips, extending to the hands and forearms, and then up beyond the elbows, as shown here. (credit a: modification of work by World Health Organization)

Bisbiguanides

Bisbiguanides were first synthesized in the 20th century and are cationic (positively charged) molecules known for their antiseptic properties ( [link] ). One important bisbiguanide antiseptic is chlorhexidine . It has broad-spectrum activity against yeasts, gram-positive bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which may develop resistance on repeated exposure. L. Thomas et al. “Development of Resistance to Chlorhexidine Diacetate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Effect of a ‘Residual’ Concentration.” Journal of Hospital Infection 46 no. 4 (2000):297–303. Chlorhexidine disrupts cell membranes and is bacteriostatic at lower concentrations or bactericidal at higher concentrations, in which it actually causes the cells’ cytoplasmic contents to congeal. It also has activity against enveloped viruses. However, chlorhexidine is poorly effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nonenveloped viruses, and it is not sporicidal. Chlorhexidine is typically used in the clinical setting as a surgical scrub and for other handwashing needs for medical personnel, as well as for topical antisepsis for patients before surgery or needle injection. It is more persistent than iodophors, providing long-lasting antimicrobial activity. Chlorhexidine solutions may also be used as oral rinses after oral procedures or to treat gingivitis. Another bisbiguanide, alexidine , is gaining popularity as a surgical scrub and an oral rinse because it acts faster than chlorhexidine.

Questions & Answers

what is Zika virus?
Somali Reply
intracellular vesicles are found in
Akshay Reply
how do i report widal slide results
Isaac Reply
how food can be used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
Ashi Reply
what is the importance of understanding chemistry in the field of microbiology and food technology?
Charmaine Reply
What is different between eukaryotes and prokcaryotic
Abia Reply
main difference is that eukaryotic cells possess membrane bound organelles
Iqra
prokaryotes are primitive organisms that doesn't contain membrane bound nucleus or any orgenelle while in eukaryotes membrane bound orgenelles and nucleus is present
Yashi
what s anatomy
jane Reply
its mean body structure, function, and systems
gazi
study of internal structure of living things
Falere
anatomy is the study structure of the made human
isir
anotomy is the actual study of body internally and externally Which include how itis made. for what and what is need of this
Iqra
la science anatomie c'est la science qui nous aide à étudier l'homme
Baraka
okay
Baraka
Ancestor are they real
Rapheal Reply
yes of course
David
yes please
Clark
50 50, depending on the accuracy of the clan records.
Vincent
okay
Baraka
Why protist is not a kingdom of Linnaeus 'S taxonomy?
Neha Reply
I dont know
Jeewraj
Linnaeus used Aristotle's criteria for dividing living organisms into kingdoms. Plants are immobile and insensitive, while animals are mobile and sensitive. the creatures he saw through the microscope were mobile, so he attributed them to animals.
Lad
name the different types of media use in lab to detect the micro organisms
Shehzadi Reply
The different types of media used in the lab to detect the microorganisms is known as cell culture..
Tean
solid media or broth is used to grow and detect microorganisms
Pohor
what is microbiology
Baraka
the study of large living organisms
Pratibha
the study of organisms which are micro in range
Vency
what is autoclaving?
Yashi
process for sterilization
Vency
is a machine used on the process of sterilisation
Clark
what is difference between hot air oven and autoclave as they both are used for sterilization ?
Vency
autoclave basically do moist heat sterilization while hot air oven do sterilization by dry heat.....
Yashi
what is the microbe
HUSSAIN
which method out of these two is best?
Yashi
why human have microbe
HUSSAIN
Hi
Sadam
hi to all
Sadam
depends on what to sterilize
Vency
microbes
Md
what is knowledge
HUSSAIN
well idea
Daniel
what are the importance of microbiologe to a nurse
Enny Reply
it enable a nurse to know the weight and height of a patient
Abotu
it helps the nurse in way as to give first aid to patient on which basis doctor will take diagonos
Iqra
disagree with both of you
Akhtar
ok
Abotu
Your Own idea
Abotu
it helps a nurse to be able to counsel a patient /client
Abotu
cell culture
Tean
Types of micro organisms
Jennifer Reply
Who discovered plant and animal cell
Jennifer
Robert Hooke
Martha
Father of microbiology
Jennifer Reply
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Satarupa
Why are mitochondria and chloroplasts unable to multiply outside of a host cell?
Iqra Reply
iqra mitochondria arises from the division of existing mitochondria and they are fused together. they move around inside the cell with the interactions of the cytoskeleton that's why mitochondria unable to multiply outside the host cells chloroplasts has its own separate DNA from the plant cell.
Rana
short not on medical microbiology
Massah Reply
Hy
Iqra
hope you fine
Arif
love you
Arif
Assalamualaikum
Suhaib
arai yeh micro kai sth kis ko love hua
Umer
icrobiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses
Suhaib
iqra iqbal
Arif
What is gram syaining?
Arif
to differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacty
Umer
True
Arif
where you are from
Arif
i m frm sopore..kashmir
Umer
i m frm baramulla .. Kashmir
Umer
and u
Umer
umer
Arif
and i m from afghanistan lovely country
Arif
yes
Umer
thanks
Arif
medical microbiology means study of microorganisms which are beneficial or harmful for the body. mostly which are studied under microscope by structure and shape appearance. e.g bacteria, viruses, bacteriophage, fungus hyphae and some blood and other body fluids parasites e.g plasmodium etc.
Rana
arif bhai gram staining in which we are given different dyes to the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasm and nucleus.e.g giemsa stain
Rana
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Gram staining uses crystal violet to stain cell walls iodine as a mordant and a fuchsin or safranin counterstain to mark all bacteria
Umer
Omar baba crystal violet iodine 70% alcohol fuchicine or safranine after every step washing must be done
Rana
hello
Cristy
*Fuchsin stain
Cristy
*Safranin
Cristy
thanks
Ganesh

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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