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A) A diagram of cetylpyridinum – a ring with 5 carbons and a nitrogen. The nitrogen is attached to a long carbon chain. Chemical structure of Benzalkonium – a six carbon ring. One carbon is attached to a carbon that is attached to a nitrogen which is attached to a long carbon chain. B) An image of surfactant molecules entering a membrane and breaking the membrane apart.
(a) Two common quats are benzylalkonium chloride and cetylpyrimidine chloride. Note the hydrophobic nonpolar carbon chain at one end and the nitrogen-containing cationic component at the other end. (b) Quats are able to infiltrate the phospholipid plasma membranes of bacterial cells and disrupt their integrity, leading to death of the cell.
  • Why are soaps not considered disinfectants?

Handwashing the right way

Handwashing is critical for public health and should be emphasized in a clinical setting. For the general public, the CDC recommends handwashing before, during, and after food handling; before eating; before and after interacting with someone who is ill; before and after treating a wound; after using the toilet or changing diapers; after coughing, sneezing, or blowing the nose; after handling garbage; and after interacting with an animal, its feed, or its waste. [link] illustrates the five steps of proper handwashing recommended by the CDC.

Handwashing is even more important for health-care workers, who should wash their hands thoroughly between every patient contact, after the removal of gloves, after contact with bodily fluids and potentially infectious fomites, and before and after assisting a surgeon with invasive procedures. Even with the use of proper surgical attire, including gloves, scrubbing for surgery is more involved than routine handwashing. The goal of surgical scrubbing is to reduce the normal microbiota on the skin’s surface to prevent the introduction of these microbes into a patient’s surgical wounds.

There is no single widely accepted protocol for surgical scrubbing. Protocols for length of time spent scrubbing may depend on the antimicrobial used; health-care workers should always check the manufacturer’s recommendations. According to the Association of Surgical Technologists (AST), surgical scrubs may be performed with or without the use of brushes ( [link] ).

a) CDC handwashing recommendations for the general public. 1 – wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold). Turn off the tap and apply soap. 2 – Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers and under your nails. 3 – Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Hum the “Happy birthday” song from beginning to end twice. 4 – Rinse your hands well under clean, running water. 5 – Dry your hands using a clean towel or air-dry them. B) A photo of a person washing their hands.
(a) The CDC recommends five steps as part of typical handwashing for the general public. (b) Surgical scrubbing is more extensive, requiring scrubbing starting from the fingertips, extending to the hands and forearms, and then up beyond the elbows, as shown here. (credit a: modification of work by World Health Organization)

Bisbiguanides

Bisbiguanides were first synthesized in the 20th century and are cationic (positively charged) molecules known for their antiseptic properties ( [link] ). One important bisbiguanide antiseptic is chlorhexidine . It has broad-spectrum activity against yeasts, gram-positive bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which may develop resistance on repeated exposure. L. Thomas et al. “Development of Resistance to Chlorhexidine Diacetate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Effect of a ‘Residual’ Concentration.” Journal of Hospital Infection 46 no. 4 (2000):297–303. Chlorhexidine disrupts cell membranes and is bacteriostatic at lower concentrations or bactericidal at higher concentrations, in which it actually causes the cells’ cytoplasmic contents to congeal. It also has activity against enveloped viruses. However, chlorhexidine is poorly effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nonenveloped viruses, and it is not sporicidal. Chlorhexidine is typically used in the clinical setting as a surgical scrub and for other handwashing needs for medical personnel, as well as for topical antisepsis for patients before surgery or needle injection. It is more persistent than iodophors, providing long-lasting antimicrobial activity. Chlorhexidine solutions may also be used as oral rinses after oral procedures or to treat gingivitis. Another bisbiguanide, alexidine , is gaining popularity as a surgical scrub and an oral rinse because it acts faster than chlorhexidine.

Questions & Answers

the product obtained by simplest conventional microbial process is
shridhan Reply
the product obtained by simplest conventional microbial fermentation process is
shridhan
curd
Mounika
what is macrobiology
Esther Reply
study in microorganisms
Siva
what is lactose
adekanbi Reply
codomint marker such as RELP are useful for
Nandan Reply
how this process start
Radhika Reply
deffination of staining
Bhavanimangali Reply
It's using dies to differentiate microorganism
shalon
Staining can be defined as a process of using stains or dye to differentiate microorganisms in an environment or habitat.
adeolu
with the aid of a well labeled diagram describe the conducting system
Maridad Reply
what is cellular immunity
namugenyi Reply
Cellular Immunity. -Lymphocytes act against target cell. -Acts directly by killing infected cells.
abdinor
What are NK cells
Peter
Natural killer cells
Rahaba
what are Antigen determinant
mary
cellular immunity is the state where the lymphocytes destroy the infected or targeted cell
cynthia
any examples of oedema
cynthia
introduction of microbial diversity-1
Bhavanimangali Reply
List the type of micro organism arround us and how they can be seen and with what kind of instrument
clinton Reply
how is the arrangements of bacteria in bacilli
Vaidah Reply
Provide some examples of bacterial structures that might be used as antibiotic targets and explain why.
Vaidah
Coccobacilli, Club-Shaped bacilli, Bacilli with rounded ends, Fuilform bacilli, Bacilli with ends square.
Enoch
three main antibiotic targets in bacteria: The cell wall or membranes that surrounds the bacterial cell. The machineries that make the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The machinery that produce proteins
Rushikesh
The bacterial cell wall. Protein production. and DNA synthesis. Why, this is because most drugs (antibiotics) affects the cell wall of the bacteria, which makes the bacteria weak or susceptible in human body.
Enoch
UV rays affecting the..
Mali Reply
what is microbiology
Baba Reply
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell which includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and pathogenic protozoa.
Enoch
Microbiology is the branch of Life science which deals with scientific study of many Microorganisms.
Rushikesh
what is types of microbiology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Algology etc
Enoch
Virology, Immunology, Bacteriology, Algology, Mycology, Protoozology etc
Enoch
and what is mycology
Alsheikh
Immunology, Serology, Virology, Microbial Genetics, Parasitology, Bacteriology, Mycology, Molecular, Cell Biology, Agricultural, Water,Soil, Food Industrial ,Pharmaceutical, Applied, Environmental, Clinical, Medical,Marine Microbiology, Microbial Systematics, Etc, are & many types of Microbiology.
Rushikesh
study of fungi is called mycology
Munna
Mycology is the branch of Microbiology which deals with scientific study of Fungi.
Rushikesh
Study of microorganisms,which we can't see with our naked eye is called microbiology
Munna
Mycology is the scientific study of Fungi.
Enoch
virology is the study of viruses
Oppah
what is microbiology? microbiology is the study of small microorganisms that we can not with our naked eyes.
Leticia
what is taxonomical classification of microbiology
Bami
The algae, protozoa, slime moulds, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses ,are taxonomic classification of Microorganisms
Rushikesh
We have Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Viruses.
Enoch
microbiology is the study of microbes too small to be seen by naked eyes
Maridad
microbiology is a branch of biology which deals with study of smallest living microrganisms such as bacteria protozoa fungi and viruses
Chaitra
microbiology is the study of microorganisms which can't be seen by our naked eyes
Nakaweesi
Micro - Minute Bio - Life Logus - Study
Roshan
what is the meaning of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Devshree Reply
seven gram positive bacteria
Okocha Reply
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha
seven examples of gram negative bacteria
Okocha

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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