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Copper, nickel, and zinc

Several other heavy metals also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Copper sulfate is a common algicide used to control algal growth in swimming pools and fish tanks. The use of metallic copper to minimize microbial growth is also becoming more widespread. Copper linings in incubators help reduce contamination of cell cultures. The use of copper pots for water storage in underdeveloped countries is being investigated as a way to combat diarrheal diseases. Copper coatings are also becoming popular for frequently handled objects such as doorknobs, cabinet hardware, and other fixtures in health-care facilities in an attempt to reduce the spread of microbes.

Nickel and zinc coatings are now being used in a similar way. Other forms of zinc, including zinc chloride and zinc oxide , are also used commercially. Zinc chloride is quite safe for humans and is commonly found in mouthwashes, substantially increasing their length of effectiveness. Zinc oxide is found in a variety of products, including topical antiseptic creams such as calamine lotion, diaper ointments, baby powder, and dandruff shampoos.

  • Why are many heavy metals both antimicrobial and toxic to humans?

Halogens

Other chemicals commonly used for disinfection are the halogens iodine , chlorine , and fluorine . Iodine works by oxidizing cellular components, including sulfur-containing amino acids, nucleotides, and fatty acids, and destabilizing the macromolecules that contain these molecules. It is often used as a topical tincture, but it may cause staining or skin irritation. An iodophor is a compound of iodine complexed with an organic molecule, thereby increasing iodine’s stability and, in turn, its efficacy. One common iodophor is povidone-iodine , which includes a wetting agent that releases iodine relatively slowly. Betadine is a brand of povidone-iodine commonly used as a hand scrub by medical personnel before surgery and for topical antisepsis of a patient’s skin before incision ( [link] ).

a) Chemical structure of betadine. B) picture of a medical professional putting orange paste on a patient.
(a) Betadine is a solution of the iodophor povidone-iodine. (b) It is commonly used as a topical antiseptic on a patient’s skin before incision during surgery. (credit b: modification of work by Andrew Ratto)

Chlorine is another halogen commonly used for disinfection. When chlorine gas is mixed with water, it produces a strong oxidant called hypochlorous acid, which is uncharged and enters cells easily. Chlorine gas is commonly used in municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment plants, with the resulting hypochlorous acid producing the actual antimicrobial effect. Those working at water treatment facilities need to take great care to minimize personal exposure to chlorine gas. Sodium hypochlorite is the chemical component of common household bleach , and it is also used for a wide variety of disinfecting purposes. Hypochlorite salts, including sodium and calcium hypochlorites, are used to disinfect swimming pools. Chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, and calcium hypochlorite are also commonly used disinfectants in the food processing and restaurant industries to reduce the spread of foodborne diseases. Workers in these industries also need to take care to use these products correctly to ensure their own safety as well as the safety of consumers. A recent joint statement published by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and WHO indicated that none of the many beneficial uses of chlorine products in food processing to reduce the spread of foodborne illness posed risks to consumers. World Health Organization. “Benefits and Risks of the Use of Chlorine-Containing Disinfectants in Food Production and Food Processing: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting.” Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2009.

Questions & Answers

what is the size of virus
Beatrice Reply
What is the difference between TVC and Bioburden test
Mohamed
?
Mohamed
structure of bacteria and 10 types
Jennifer Reply
what is accidental host?
Domingo Reply
what is endomembrane system
Ikpi Reply
what is human anatomy
Ikpi
okay. Go ahead and ask
Blessing Reply
Industrial microbiology mcq
mohamed
Okay. What's your question?
Blessing
life arises from living matter or live organism.
Swami Reply
yes
sildra
I think live matter arises from non living matter
sildra
I dont think so...can u explain with an example
Manya
living maters made by non living matters
sildra
non living matters like stones? rocks?
Manya
eno
sildra
no
sildra
then?
Manya
cells are made by C N O minerals etc
sildra
I mentioned these as non living maters
sildra
that's all
sildra
cells are made up of those things but they originate from living things..
Manya
ok
sildra
Ok..good chat:-)
Manya
where are you from
sildra
thanks
sildra
India...u?
Manya
Tamil nadu
sildra
I am from Maharashtra
Manya
what about your studies
sildra
completed bsc.. preparing for msc entrance...wbu?
Manya
same
sildra
are you microbiologist
sildra
yes i am
Manya
good
sildra
what s the scope for micro in ur state?
Manya
did you find your college to higher studies
sildra
have to give an entrance exam for every college here...so lets c
Manya
food industries, medical lab, vaccine industries ,etc
sildra
hoping for pune University...wbu?
Manya
great!
Manya
is that centeral University right
sildra
what is your namr
sildra
hello
Udhaya
Hi
Maruf
Family kindly help me with this question? 1) Shortlist the configurative measurements of the following human anatomical ranges of÷ - Blood ( haemeglobin) in both male and female - Haematocytes in both male and female - Hepatocytes in both male and female - Lymphocyte / T. Lymphocytes in both male
Gifted
My names are Gift Mwale and am a Zambian. Kindly help me with this research which goes like this... 1) Shortlist the configurative measurements of the following human anatomical ranges of ÷ - Blood ( haemeglobin) in both male and female - Hepatocytes in both male and female - Haematocytes in both
Gifted
please what is the full meaning for TCDS
UDEME
from a single cell
Freedom
tcds means transcranial direct current stimulation...in this small electric currents are given to brain( specific parts) to help increase brain performance or to help with depression.. current should be in range 0.5-2.0mA
Manya
what's underlying disease relating unsanitary diet microorganism with the highest rate of epidemology solution and efficacy leading molecules elucidated structural solutions
feven
please can anybody talk about brain tumour and its cure.
BELLO Reply
enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting in over production of hormone.
Kamal Reply
What can u say on Thyroid Cancer?
Abdulkareem
Please, talk about the thyroid cancer.
BELLO
explain the Grave's disease
John Reply
what is cell
Avi Reply
is unit of life
Kamaluddeen
Ok
mohamed
who is an industrial microbiologist
Cynthia Reply
I want to know the biochemical composition of bacteria
Josh Reply
It contains peptidoglcon, DNA nd RNA
Asiya
what are Carrier protein
Ikpi
bacteriophage disadvantage
Momina Reply
disease due to __________ abnormalities are termed primary immunodeficiencies
Tayee Reply
Some primary immunodeficiencies are due to a defect of a single cellular or humoral component of the immune system.
Prince
Examples of primary immunodeficiencies include: chronic granulomatous disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective IgA deficiency etc
Prince
thank you
Nana
explain microbial mutation
Emerald
what is mutation
Cynthia Reply
alteration in genetic makeup
UDEME

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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