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A vertical as curve

The graph shows a straight vertical potential GDP line.
In the neoclassical model, the aggregate supply curve is drawn as a vertical line at the level of potential GDP. If AS is vertical, then it determines the level of real output, no matter where the aggregate demand curve is drawn. Over time, the LRAS curve shifts to the right as productivity increases and potential GDP expands.

The role of flexible prices

How does the macroeconomy adjust back to its level of potential GDP in the long run? What if aggregate demand increases or decreases? The neoclassical view of how the macroeconomy adjusts is based on the insight that even if wages and prices are “sticky”, or slow to change, in the short run, they are flexible over time. To understand this better, let's follow the connections from the short-run to the long-run macroeconomic equilibrium.

The aggregate demand and aggregate supply diagram shown in [link] shows two aggregate supply curves. The original upward sloping aggregate supply curve (SRAS 0 ) is a short-run or Keynesian AS curve. The vertical aggregate supply curve (LRASn) is the long-run or neoclassical AS curve, which is located at potential GDP. The original aggregate demand curve, labeled AD 0 , is drawn so that the original equilibrium occurs at point E 0 , at which point the economy is producing at its potential GDP.

The rebound to potential gdp after ad increases

The graph shows two aggregate demand curves and two aggregate supply curves that all intersect with the Potential GDP line at 50 on the x-axis. AD1 intersects with AS1 at point (130, 50). AD0 and AS0 intersect at point (120, 50). Additionally, AD1 intersects with AS0 at (125, 55).
The original equilibrium (E 0 ), at an output level of 500 and a price level of 120, happens at the intersection of the aggregate demand curve (AD 0 ) and the short-run aggregate supply curve (SRAS 0 ). The output at E 0 is equal to potential GDP. Aggregate demand shifts right from AD 0 to AD 1 . The new equilibrium is E 1 , with a higher output level of 550 and an increase in the price level to 125. With unemployment rates unsustainably low, wages are bid up by eager employers, which shifts short-run aggregate supply to the left, from SRAS 0 to SRAS 1 . The new equilibrium (E 2 ) is at the same original level of output, 500, but at a higher price level of 130. Thus, the long-run aggregate supply curve (LRASn), which is vertical at the level of potential GDP, determines the level of real GDP in this economy in the long run.

Now, imagine that some economic event boosts aggregate demand: perhaps a surge of export sales or a rise in business confidence that leads to more investment, perhaps a policy decision like higher government spending, or perhaps a tax cut that leads to additional aggregate demand. The short-run Keynesian analysis is that the rise in aggregate demand will shift the aggregate demand curve out to the right, from AD 0 to AD 1 , leading to a new equilibrium at point E 1 with higher output, lower unemployment, and pressure for an inflationary rise in the price level.

In the long-run neoclassical analysis, however, the chain of economic events is just beginning. As economic output rises above potential GDP, the level of unemployment falls. The economy is now above full employment and there is a shortage of labor. Eager employers are trying to bid workers away from other companies and to encourage their current workers to exert more effort and to put in longer hours. This high demand for labor will drive up wages. Most workers have their salaries reviewed only once or twice a year, and so it will take time before the higher wages filter through the economy. As wages do rise, it will mean a leftward shift in the short-run Keynesian aggregate supply curve back to SRAS 1 , because the price of a major input to production has increased. The economy moves to a new equilibrium (E 2 ). The new equilibrium has the same level of real GDP as did the original equilibrium (E 0 ), but there has been an inflationary increase in the price level.

Questions & Answers

The type of elasticity if demand
Okonkwo Reply
aren't leaving too about bathrooms
SHADAB
I don't understand
Amina
like.
Ubong
what is money
Lawal Reply
what is supply
Lawal
the total number of goods present at a particular area at a particular time
Offset
the meaning of elasticity
Affum Reply
how to knw the break even point in business
Edmore Reply
hello
Marshal
hello
ghulam
hi
Kakay
hi
Ornill
hi
Bakari
Good evening
owi
when TOTAL COST & TOTAL REVENUE equal each other that's break even point
Bappy
How is everyone doing
Kakay
yaah
Chris
🤙🤙
Kakay
Good evening
Amarachi
how are you feeling
Sorie
hello
Marshal
hello
McClean
Hai👋👋
Noah
Hey
Andile
hello
Offset
what's up?
Offset
what are the importance of economics
sani Reply
hello
Marshal
welcome
Zaid
am new here
Kakay
hello I'm new here
Mona
your welcome
Bakari
thanks
Mona
where are you from?
Bakari
Hello I'm new here
Amarachi
what is development?
juwel Reply
it shows how many products customers are willing to purchase as the price of those product increase or decrease
Asha Reply
economics as a science
skima Reply
What is utility
Jimoh Reply
utility is a total satisfaction derives from a consumer.
Umar
what is ranking reveal choices?
Umar
wants satisfying power of a commodity is known as utility........
SHADAB
What is elasity
bohvy
Differentiate between scarcity and choice and explain how they effect perfectly elasiticity of demand and give relevant example with type of goods affected
PATRICK
Utility is ability if of available goods to satisfy human wants
PATRICK
any idea about equilibrium?
Umar
equilibrium where price and quantity demanded equals
Bappy
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john
Equilibrium is when quantity demanded of goods and services is equal to supply to the market.
john
saaa.....
Bright
how about the profit....anybody can explain
Jeff
how about equilibrium of consumer?
Umar
bappy,john thank you the answers.
Umar
Utility Simply means the satisfaction a consumer derives from consuming a good or service
Hez
Pls can someone explain Elasticity of demand in a short terms
Osuayan
it's a degree of responsiveness to demand due to changes in prices
Ukpen
what is scarcity? pls help
Mikateko Reply
scarity is when there is a huge demand for certain goods and services but there's limited resources to actually produce those things
Mario
thank you
Kakay
what is development?
juwel
what is distribution
umar Reply
1.what is distribution? 2.what are factors affecting distribution? 3.releat what you are writing in the contest of economics and Nigeria situation
umar
what is demand
Obianyido Reply
things that are needed or wanted
Mario
The market for you In Ilorin has the following demand and supply equation Qd + 5p =9520 Qs =2.5p - 125 a) determine the equation price and quantity b) Explain the situation when the market price is below the equlibrum price
Rasheee Reply
solutions
Alex
What is scale of preference
Richmond Reply
Pls what is scale of preference
Richmond
scale of preference is a arrangement of individual wants in order of priority
Lamina
the arrangement of people want inoder of demand
Ada
explain whether decisions in microeconomics involve an opportunity cost
Sonali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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