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Growth accounting studies

Since the late 1950s, economists have conducted growth accounting studies to determine the extent to which physical and human capital deepening and technology have contributed to growth. The usual approach uses an aggregate production function to estimate how much of per capita economic growth can be attributed to growth in physical capital and human capital. These two inputs can be measured, at least roughly. The part of growth that is unexplained by measured inputs, called the residual, is then attributed to growth in technology. The exact numerical estimates differ from study to study and from country to country, depending on how researchers measured these three main factors over what time horizons. For studies of the U.S. economy, three lessons commonly emerge from growth accounting studies.

First, technology is typically the most important contributor to U.S. economic growth. Growth in human capital and physical capital often explains only half or less than half of the economic growth that occurs. New ways of doing things are tremendously important.

Second, while investment in physical capital is essential to growth in labor productivity and GDP per capita, building human capital is at least as important. Economic growth is not just a matter of more machines and buildings. One vivid example of the power of human capital and technological knowledge occurred in Europe in the years after World War II (1939–1945). During the war, a large share of Europe’s physical capital, such as factories, roads, and vehicles, was destroyed. Europe also lost an overwhelming amount of human capital in the form of millions of men, women, and children who died during the war. However, the powerful combination of skilled workers and technological knowledge, working within a market-oriented economic framework, rebuilt Europe’s productive capacity to an even higher level within less than two decades.

A third lesson is that these three factors of human capital, physical capital, and technology work together. Workers with a higher level of education and skills are often better at coming up with new technological innovations. These technological innovations are often ideas that cannot increase production until they become a part of new investment in physical capital. New machines that embody technological innovations often require additional training, which builds worker skills further. If the recipe for economic growth is to succeed, an economy needs all the ingredients of the aggregate production function. See the following Clear It Up feature for an example of how human capital, physical capital, and technology can combine to significantly impact lives.

How do girls’ education and economic growth relate in low-income countries?

In the early 2000s, according to the World Bank, about 110 million children between the ages of 6 and 11 were not in school—and about two-thirds of them were girls. In Bangladesh, for example, the illiteracy rate for those aged 15 to 24 was 78% for females, compared to 75% for males. In Egypt, for this age group, illiteracy was 84% for females and 91% for males. Cambodia had 86% illiteracy for females and 88% for males. Nigeria had 66% illiteracy for females in the 15 to 24 age bracket and 78% for males.

Whenever any child does not receive a basic education, it is both a human and an economic loss. In low-income countries, wages typically increase by an average of 10 to 20% with each additional year of education. There is, however, some intriguing evidence that helping girls in low-income countries to close the education gap with boys may be especially important, because of the social role that many of the girls will play as mothers and homemakers.

Girls in low-income countries who receive more education tend to grow up to have fewer, healthier, better-educated children. Their children are more likely to be better nourished and to receive basic health care like immunizations. Economic research on women in low-income economies backs up these findings. When 20 women get one additional year of schooling, as a group they will, on average, have one less child. When 1,000 women get one additional year of schooling, on average one to two fewer women from that group will die in childbirth. When a woman stays in school an additional year, that factor alone means that, on average, each of her children will spend an additional half-year in school. Education for girls is a good investment because it is an investment in economic growth with benefits beyond the current generation.

Questions & Answers

what is price determination?
Alick Reply
why are imports subtructed when GDP is calculated in the expenditure approach
nati
what is fiscalpolicy
nati Reply
The way of the government expenses and other analysis
Zubairu
and politics party important
mujtaba Reply
politics party important
mujtaba
Which party is that
Zubairu
persons who stopped searching for jobs but would accept if the opportunity presents itself
Torissa Reply
persons who are unemployed whether they are underage, retired or incapacitated
Torissa
what is the impact of fiscal policy in the short and long run in the AD/AS model...
Hydrammeh Reply
What is demand
Mohd Reply
Demand is the desire for a commodity backed by the willingness and the purchasing power too.
Ajay
what is the impact of the higher tax rate on the business and the economy at large..?
Hydrammeh Reply
aggregate demand decreases and GDP decreases in the long run prices will decrease because aggregate supply will shift to the right and increase
Murabit
Thanks, Murabit
Hydrammeh
But still I will need more explanation
Hydrammeh
no problem tax rate is a form of fiscal policy so any time the government changes spending or taxes it will directly affect the economy
Murabit
but remember that there at different economic views on fiscal policy there is classical,Keynesian and moneterism
Murabit
if taxes increase aggregate demand decreases causing a fall in prices causing a fall in the money demand lowering interest rate and increasing investment spending in turn increasing prices
Murabit
thanks so much Murabit
Hydrammeh
what are the policy recommendations for impact of government borrowing?
Baisiro Reply
how can I get Utility notes here
Tabea Reply
I also want to know
konglan
I have them
Alick
money and money supply
Yogesh Reply
money is anything that is generally accepted as payment of goods and services or that is accepted in settlement of debt.
Rakgadi
Money supply?
Rakgadi
Money supply is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
Rakgadi
supply of money:- The total quantity of money in an economy at a point of time......
Ittoo
What is the difference between monetary economy and barter economy?
Rakgadi
monetary economy is simply an economy where money acts as a medium of exchange and barter economy is why where goods acts as a medium of exchange
Ittoo
Thank you Ittoo.
Rakgadi
please cut why.....in last ans
Ittoo
and no need of thanks dear
Ittoo
Don't damend work in inflation
Mishael Reply
conceptand variable of macro economics
Bittu Reply
Hi
Jafta
hi
Prashant
hello
hello
George
macro economics is the study of general factors in an economy.
George
what is fiscal policy?
talukder
fiscal policy refers to the use of government spending,taxation and borrowing to affect economic activity ,monetary policy on the other hand, entails the manipulation of interest rates.
Rakgadi
A lots of thanks
talukder
you are welcome
Rakgadi
Very informative talukder
Jafta
yes Jafta
talukder
So scarcity will always be a problem, is something that can't be solved due to specialization of labor and choice?
Jafta
yes right Jafta
talukder
good definition Jata♥♥
talukder
how are you all
Nurul
well
Asma
good
talukder
Kindly explain or give example of Voluntary unemployment.
Rakgadi
when unemployment doesn't choose a accept job at wage of rate
talukder
Thanks Talukder
Rakgadi
hi
kura
macroeconomics is not too hard
Omar
wow Omar, ur so helpful lol🤣
Alex
good ho every one
Fahad
what's up guys■■
Fahad
I want someone to tell me everything about the inflation and and hyber inflation is plz
Lolla
hi someone to explain to mi notes ov money and banking
prossie
yes
Manjil
dia explain to me notes of money and banking
prossie
dot US Army higher South Korean citizen for the US base South Korea and pay them 50000 as a result
farzana Reply
What is production possibility frontier
adewale Reply
Production possibility frontier is a curve depicting all maximum output possibilities for two goods, given a set of inputs consisting of resources and other factors. The production possibility curve is frontir that all inputs are used efficiently.
.
what are some examples of a monetary policy?
Viccey Reply
expansionary policy contractionary policy
Steve

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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